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U4 Science

machine a technological device that helps to do work more easily
lever A simple machine with a fulcrum that allows heavier objects to be lifted more easily
Inclined plane A simple machine with a slanted plane
Wedge A simple machine with a series of inclined planes about a circular shaft
Wheel and axle A simple machine consisting of a round object connected to a smaller shaft that turns
Aqueduct A simple machine developed by the Romans to transport water far distances to supply major cities
Archimedes Screw A simple machine with a large screw inside a tube used to move large quantities of water
What makes a simple machine, simple They are extremely basic in design, and they can be used too form parts for complex machines
What are the 6 basic simple machines Levers, inclined planes, wedges, screws, pullies, and wheel and axels
Effort force the amount of effort you have to exert to move something
Why do you feel as though using a simple machine to move something makes the task easier Because most simple machines make it so than you have to move the object a farther distance, but also makes it so than you do not have to put in as much effort to move it that distance compared to not using a simple machine at all
The law of gears -The gear that gets power is called the driving gear -The other gear is called the driven gear -A large driving gear means motion will speed up and vice versa
What are complex machines made up of Simple machines
Transmission It shifts the gears back and forth so that the size of the gears touching one another changes so that the speed or motion of the gears is also changed
Linkage A chain that joins the teeth on the front sprocket to the sprocket on the back wheel.
When work is made easier when you use a machine, it is known as a Mechanical advantage
Input force When you put in a small amount of effort to use a machine
Output force The large amount of energy a machine exerts when you put in an amount of input force
The formula to calculate a mechanical advantage MA = output force/input force
Speed Ratio The distance needed for a machine to work
The formula to calculate a mechanical advantage SR = input distance/output distance
Machines are not perfect because of friction
Efficiency How well a machine uses the input energy put into it
Work The result of force acting over a distance
A formula for calculating work Work = Force x Distance
work is measured in what unit of measurement Joules
Force is measured in what unit of measurement Newtons
Distance is measured in what unit of measurement Meters
All machines use some form of Energy
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, thus meaning that the amount of energy put into a machine is the same as the energy that comes out, except for that lost by heat from friction
hydraulic system part of a machine that uses a fluid to control things
pressure force per unit area
Pascal's Law states that the pressure in a fluid is transferred equally throughout the fluid
piston moving part of a hydraulic system that puts the pressure on the fluid inside
input pressure pressure that is applied to a hydraulic system on a master cylinder
output pressure the pressure that comes out of a hydraulic system from a slave cylinder
fluid liquid substance
surface area area on the outside of a substance
something that is not compressible incompressible
why does pressure happen to a fluid in a container pressure occurs because the particles of the fluid is trapped by the walls of the container
what things can you do to a container containing a fluid to increase the pressure being put on the fluid smaller container, heated container, shake the container, increase the amount of particles inside the container
psi pressure
Pascal's Law pressure spreads out in all directions
how to calculate pressure pressure = force/area
An example of how to calculate pressure pressure = 1000/250cm2
why does the output force of a slave cylinder become greater than the input force on a master cylinder pressure from the piston in the master cylinder being pushed downward is transferred throughout the hydraulic fluid to the bottom of the piston in the salve cylinder. This piston has a greater surface area, thus the force is magnified.
What is the purpose of the high-pressure hydraulic lines in large hydraulic machines? the pressure lines transfer the force caused by the input piston to the output piston that is mounted elsewhere in the machine.
when pressure is increased on an input piston, does the liquid compress? No.
mechanical devices are evaluated because manufacturers want to know how to improve them
efficiency described qualitivity
function what a device is supposed to do
design the physical form of the device that makes it usable
Formula for calculating efficiency Efficiency = work done by machine/work done to make machine operate
The earliest machines were Simple devices to make simple tasks easier, like moving a large rock, or moving a load up an incline
What did the earliest machines depend on as a source of energy People and animals
What are three devices used to get water in earlier times The Sakia, the Roman Aqueduct, and the Archimedes screw
Who developed the first practical steam engine Thomas Savery
When was the first practical steam engine made 1699
How did the first practical steam engine work Water was heated to make steam and then used it to move a piston. When the piston moved, it caused an attached rod to move as well.
When was the internal combustion engine developed 1876
Where was the internal combustion engine developed Germany
How does the internal combustion engine work The combustion occurs inside the engine. The pistons went through 4 steps: intake stroke, compression stroke, power stroke, and exhaust stroke. The crank shaft changes the up-down motion of the pistons to rotary motion, which turns the vehicle's wheels.
Where does the word "Robot" come from and what does it mean The Czech word "Robotnik", which means workers or slaves
What do robots mainly do Weld car bodies, defuse bombs, preform surgery, help the handicapped, explore other planets, and other things that may be harmful to a human.
___ ___ first identified electric charges in the ____s, but it wasn't until the ____s that it became widely available in cities. Charles Coulomb, 1700s, 1800s
When did electric charges become widely available outside of Canada 1940s
How does the MAGLEV train work They float on magnets, making it so there's very little friction, letting them travel at 350km/h
Particle accelerator A huge machine that breaks up atoms
Created by: MUFU
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