Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Molecular Genetics

Basic, Beyond Basic and Lab Terms

TermDefinition
bacterial DNA one circular chromosome not surrounded by a nucleus, they may also have smaller rings of DNA called plasmids [B]
DNA (structure) double sided helix made of nucleotides containing a sugar, phosphate group and a base. Watson, Crick, Wilkins and Franklin contributed [B]
DNA (as a molecule of heredity) a variety of experiments determined that DNA, not protein, is the molecule of heredity. Griffith, Avery and Hershey-Chase contributed [B]
base pairing rule in DNA, Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T) and Guanine (G) pairs with Cytosine (C). In RNA, Uracil (U) is substituted for Thymine.[B]
transcription (location) the first step of protein synthesis takes place in the nucleus [B]
transcription (function) the first step of protein synthesis converts DNA code to mRNA code (m = messenger) [B]
translation (location) the final step of protein synthesis takes place at the ribosomes [B]
translation (function) the final step of protein synthesis includes mRNA --> tRNA --> polypeptide chain to eventually form a protein (t = transfer) [B]
point mutation addition, deletion or substitution of one base of DNA can result in no change, a different protein, or an incomplete protein [B]
genetic engineering general term for manipulation of DNA includes cloning, gel electrophoresis and transformation [B]
virus a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of a host and is not alive [B]
DNA vs. RNA 1) double sided, has the sugar deoxyribose and has the base thymine 2) single sided, has the sugar ribose and the base uracil [B]
eukaryotic DNA multiple linear chromosomes located in the nucleus (other DNA can be found in mitochondria and chloroplasts) [BB]
purines and pyrimidines 1) bases of DNA including adenine (A) and guanine (G) with a double ring structure 2) bases of DNA including thymine (T), cytosine (C) and uracil (U) with a single ring structure [BB]
types of RNA messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and RNA interference (RNAi) [BB]
gene regulation the process of switching genes on and off which determines which genes will be expressed at a given time (mechanisms vary between prokaryotes and eukaryotes) [BB]
gene expression a gene is expressed if it is currently coding for a protein product (involves regulatory genes, regulatory elements and transcription factors) [BB]
RNA polymerase reads the template DNA strand in the 3' to 5' direction and synthesizes complementary mRNA molecules [BB]
RNA processing Following transcription, pre-mRNA gains a poly-A tail, a GTP cap and introns are removed in preparation for translation [BB]
transduction, conjugation and transposition the horizontal acquisition of genetic material in prokaryotes 1) viral transmission 2) cell-to-cell transfer 3) movement of DNA segments within and between DNA molecules [BB]
cell differentiation structural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized during a multicellular organism's development; dependent on the control of gene expression [BB]
codon three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal [BB]
viral replication duplication of a virus must take place within a host cell [BB]
retrovirus an RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA which lacks error checking mechanisms, allowing for a high rate of mutation and evolution (example: HIV) [BB]
DNA fingerprinting a test to identify and evaluate the genetic information (DNA) in a person's cells [Lab: DNA Fingerprinting]
restriction endonuclease an enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA (including that of certain phages) that is foreign to a bacterium [Lab: DNA Fingerprinting]
restriction site specific sequence on a DNA strand that is recognized as a "cut site" by a restriction endonuclease [Lab: DNA Fingerprinting]
gel electrophoresis separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel [Lab: DNA Fingerprinting]
fragment migration in gel electrophoresis, short DNA fragments travel quickly and long DNA fragments travel more slowly [Lab: DNA Fingerprinting]
wells in gel electrophoresis, indentations in the gel that hold DNA and enzymes [Lab: DNA Fingerprinting]
micropipette a device that is used to deliver small volumes of liquid; usually in the range of 0.5 to 1,000 microliters [Lab: DNA Fingerprinting]
DNA stain in gel electrophoresis, a dye that causes DNA fragments in gel to become visible [Lab: DNA Fingerprinting]
transformation genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of DNA (including recombinant DNA) from the surrounding area [Lab: Transformation]
pGLO an engineered plasmid which (among other genes) includes the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene that can transform organisms to fluoresce in UV light [Lab: Transformation]
plasmid a small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome [Lab: Transformation]
araC in the pGLO plasmid, a promoter region that regulates the expression of GFP only in the presence of arabinose [Lab: Transformation]
Bla in the pGLO plasmid, codes for the enzyme that causes resistance to ampicillin [Lab: Transformation]
ori in the pGLO plasmid, and other plasmid, the is origin or starting point of replication [Lab: Transformation]
GFP in the pGLO plasmid, codes for the production of the green fluorescent protein which fluoreses under UV light [Lab: Transformation]
heat shock brief exposure of bacteria to a hot water bath in order to disrupt the membrane and increase the chance of the uptake of plasmids [Lab: Transformation]
Created by: cfigueiredo