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Ch 1

Evolution- CORE THEME Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life on earth
Biology is the study of life.
Biologists ask Questions
7 Characteristics of life Order, Evolutionary adaption, Response to the environment, Reproduction, Growth and development, Energy processing, Regulation
Order is- the highly ordered structure that characterizes life
Evolutionary adaption- Such adaptions evolve over many generations by reproductive success of those individuals with heritable traits that are best suited to their environments.
Reproduction- Organisms (living things) reproduce their own kind.
Response to the environment-
Growth and development- Inherited information carried by the gene controls the pattern of growth and development of organisms, such as seedlings.
Energy processing-
The study of life reveals common themes which are 5 unifying themes: Organization, Information, Energy and Matter, Interactions, and Evolution
Organization- Highly organized. There is structure and function within all forms of life.
Emergent properties are New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
The cell- The smallest unit of organization that can perform all activities required for life.
All cells have- Enclosed by a membrane, DNA as their genetic material, have Ribosomes, Contain Cytosol
To main types of cells- Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells- Has membrane-enclosed organelles, the largest of which is usually the nucleus
Prokaryotic cells- is simpler and ususally smaller, and does not contain a nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles
Eukaryotic cells- has membrane-enclosed organelles, the largest of which is the nucleus
Information- within cells, structure called chromosomes contain genetic information in the form of DNA. Each
Gene codes are the units of INHERITANCE
Each DNA is made up of Two long chains arranged in a double helix
Each chain is made up of 4 kinds of chemical building blocks called- Neucleotides and nicknamed A, G, C, and T
DNA is transcribed into- RNA, which is translated into a protein. DNA =>RNA=>Protein
Gene expression is- the process of converting information from gene to cellular product
Gene expression is also... Central Dogma
An organisms GENOME is- its entire set of genetic instructions
GENOMICS is the study of- sets of genes within and between species
PROTEOMICS is the study of- whole sets of proteins encoded by the genome (known as proteomes)
ENERGY and MATTER. Energy flows through an eco system one way- usually entering as light and exiting as heat.
INTERACTIONS between the components of at the system ensure smooth integration of all parts, such that they function as a whole.
CELLS are able to coordinate various chemical pathways through a mechanism called? Feedback
In FEEDBACK REGULATION- the output or product of a process, regulates that very process
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK means- that as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it slows and less of the product is produced. (ATP generation)
POSITIVE FEEDBACK means- that as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it speeds up and more of the product if produced. (Blood clotting)
EVOLUTION accounts for the unity and diversity of life
Taxonoy is the brach of biology that names and classifies species, formalizes this order of species into groups of increasing breadth, based on degree to which they share characteristics.
What are the 3 Domains of life? Domain Bacteria, Domain Archaea, and Domain Eukaryea
Bacteria and Archaea are- Prokaryotic- unicellular
Domain Eukaryotic includes- Plantea (photosynthesis- multicellular) Fungi (Absorb nutrients- multicellular) Animalia (Ingest their food- Multicellular) Protists (unicellular- many kingdoms)
A striking UNITY underlines the diversity of life... DNA is the universal genetic language- Cell structure
Darwin made two main points- 1. Species showed evidence of "descent with modification" from common ancestors 2. Natuaral selection is the mechanism behind "descent with modification"
Natural selection results in- in the adaption of organisms to their environment
The word "science" is derived from Latin and means "to know"
The scientific process includes- making observations, forming logical hypotheses in testing them.
Scientists use a process that includes- making observations, forming logical hypotheses, and testing them.
Scientists describe natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through Observation and analysis of data
Recoded observations are called- Data
Two forms of DATA- Qualitative and Quantitative
Qualitative is- Descriptions rather than measurements
Quantitative is- Measurements which are sometimes organized into table or graphs (numbers)
In science, HYPOTHESIS is a tentative answer to a well framed question- an explanation on trial -not a best guess - they are narrow in scope
INDUCTIVE REASONING- draws conclusions through the logical process of induction
Failure to prove that hypothesis- Does not PROVE that hypothesis
Independent variable is manipulated variable
Dependent variable is Outcome
In the context of science, a theory is Broader in scope than hypothesis, can lead to new testable hypothesis
Science benefits from- A cooperative approach and diverse viewpoints. Most scientist work in teams.
The goal in science is to understand natural phenomenon- Discoveries
The goal of technology is to to apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose- Inventions
Science and technology are- Independent
Created by: jrobillard1