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Mammalian Integument

characteristics of modern mammalian integument

Dermis Middle layer of skin, consists of collagenous connective tissue, holds other components together, cushions body, contains: sensory nerves, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands
Epidermis Top layer of skin, consists of: stratum corneum (top keratinized skin cells to prevent dessication), stratum lucidum (usually where exposed to lot abrasion), stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale (constant cell production migrates up)
Hypodermis Bottom layer of skin, contains: adipocytes (energy reserve, thermoregulation/ insulation)
Sebaceous glands oil, associated with hair follicles to keep moist and waterproof
sweat glands Eccrine: not associated with hair, function at birth, produce thin sweat for evaporative cooling, most common on palms and soles, Apocrine: near hair follicles, begin at puberty, create viscous sweat,
scent glands modified sweat or sebaceous glands, produce scents may be pheromonal, not all pheromones from scent glands
Mammary glands specialized epidermal, # and location vary through different species
Hair growth types Angora: continuous growth, long may be shed Definitive: grows to certain length and stops, shed and replaced
Hair functional type: Vibrissae : long, stiff, enervation at base, all mammals but humans, definitive
Hair functional type: Guard hair outer layer hair/fur, spines (large & stiff for protection, definitive), bristles (firm, angora, manes lions and horse), awns (most common, definitive)
Hair functional type: Underhair Wool: angora, thick, soft, curly, Fur: short, soft, hairs close together, definitive, Velli: short, fine, velvety, gone after birth for many, gone as mature
Hair anatomy Medulla: center of hair, sometimes hollow, solid, alternating, Cortex: thickest layer, outside medulla, inside cuticle, Cuticle: outer layer, scale-like pattern, can be ID character
Hair color 2 types melanin pigment: Pheomelanin (shades red & yellow), Eumelanin (shades black & brown), Albinism: no pigment from genetic mutation, Melanism: all black from genetic mutation, pigments secreted at base of hair as develop
Hair color patterns Agouti: different bands of color from base to tip, Countershading: top and bottom animal different colors (most common in (semi)arboreal), Cryptic coloration: match habitat, Disruptive coloration: spots/ stripes break up outline of animal, warning colors
Molt Periodic replacement of definitive growth, Post-juvenile (once), annual (once/year), seasonal (commonly 2X/year often with color change), generally done over weeks
Created by: jebeard