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How are elements abbreviated in chemical shorthand? by a Symbol. One or two letter. The first letter is always a capital. If there is a second letter it is always lower case.
What is an Atom? The basic building block of all matter.
What is an element? A substance that contains only one type of Atom. A pure substance.
What are the three particles in an Atom? Protons, Neutrons & electrons.
What is the electrical charge of a Proton? Positive (+)
What is the electrical charge of a neutron? Neutral (o)
What is the electrical charge of an electron? Negative (-)
What is the nucleus of an atom? The center. The part of the atom with the most mass.
What particles are in the nucleus of an atom? Protons & Neutrons.
What is the meaning of the Atomic Number? Atomic Number =
What is the meaning of the Atomic Mass Number? It is the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
On the Periodic Table where can you find the Atomic Number? The small number at the top of each square.
On the Periodic Table where can you find the Atomic Mass number? The larger number underneathe the symbol of the element
Where are the electrons of an atom located? Outside of the nucleus in an electron cloud.
Which atomic particle determines the properties of an element? Protons
How much mass do the atomic particles have? Protons & Neutrons contain most of the mass of the atom. The electrons are so small we cannot measure their mass. Electron mass is counted as zero.
What is an Isotope? Atoms which have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
What is an Ion? An atom with an electric charge. (must lose or gain electrons in order to become an ion)
How does an atom acquire an electrical charge? It gains or loses one or more electrons.
How does a normal atom maintain a total neutral charge? Equal numbers of Protons (+) and Electrons (-).
Do we know the exact location of electrons in the electron cloud? No. The exact location of electrons cannot be known for certain. We can only predict the approximate & probably location of the electrons in various shell energy levels, from closest to the nucleus to further and further from the nucleus.
How do you find the number of Protons on the Periodic Table? The number of protons is equal to the atomic number
How do you find the Atomic Mass on the Periodic Table? The Atomic Mass is the decimal number at the bottom of each square.
What is a Shell Energy Level? The approximate location of electrons in the electron cloud surrounding the atomic nucleus
Democritus Said that all matter is composed of "atomos"
John Dalton _____'s Atomic Theory (5 laws)
Sir J. J. Thomson Discovered electrons, proposed "plum-pudding atom" (electrons embedded in protons)
Robert A. Millikan Calculated charge of electron
Ernest Rutherford Discovered that there is a "dense, positively charged region" in the atom
Bohr Said that electrons travel in concentric circular paths around the nucleus, with fixed amount of energy for each level.
Dmitri Mendeleev Arranged elements by properties and mass
Two subatomic particles found in the nucleus protons and neutrons
Subatomic particles with a positive charge protons
Subatomic particle(s)identified by the atomic number for a neutral atom proton or electrons
Subatomic particles with a negative charge electrons
Decimal number in the periodic table square atomic mass
Visually shows the number of valence electrons as dots around the chemical symbol of an element Lewis Dot diagram(s)
whole number in the periodic table square atomic number
building blocks of matter atom
found inside the nucleus, have a positve charge, and a mass of 1 amu protons
type of matter composed of only one type of atom element
type of matter where two or more elements are chemically bonded together compound
Only metal touching the metalloid staircase aluminum
Name of elements in group 2 alkaline earth metals
Elements with similar chemical properties are found in the same.... on the periodic table. group
only metal in liquid state at room temperature mercury
maximum number of electrons held by the second Period eight
an atom with a change in electrons but constant proton count ion
an atom with the same proton count but a change in mass due to a change in neutron count isotope
Elements in group 17 halogens
subatomic particle count found by subtracting the mass number and atomic number neutrons
electrons found in the last or outermost shell valence electrons
atomic number represents this particle in a NEUTRAL atom proton
small, dense core of the atom nucleus
Elements in group 18 noble gases
Maximum number of electrons found in the third shell eighteen
subatomic particles with a mass of 1 amu and no charge neutrons
rounded version of the atomic mass;sum of protons and neutrons for one isotope mass number
Maximum number of electrons in the shell closest to the nucleus two
Elements in Group 1; except hydrogen Alkali metals
Chemically inert or unreactive elements because they have a complete valence shell noble gases
elements found in groups 3 through 12 transition metals
smallest form of matter atom
Most active non-metal element fluorine
Most active metal element francium
only non-metal liquid at room temperature bromine
Subatomic particle with a negative charge and very low mass electron
vertical columns of the periodic table groups or families
horizontal rows of the periodic table periods
Identifies the valence electron count for an element except the transition metals group number
only non metal found on the left side of periodic table Hydrogen
proton a positively charged particle
neutron an uncharged particle
nucleus the combination of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom. has a positive charge because of protons
electrons negatively charged particles that move around outside the nucleus
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass number the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
isotope an atom of one element that has a different number of neutrons than another atom of the same element
ion an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative electric charge
Material particular kind of matter that has different properties that are used to characterize it
Physical Property is a characteristic that can be observed from a material without changing its chemical identity
Physical Change is a change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity. All bonds remain intact. The same molecules are present. Temporary.
Chemical Property is a characteristic of a material that involves, or results in a chemical change. "ability, reactivity, or potential"
Chemical Change involves bond breaking and bond formation to give new products by means of a chemical reaction. Is a change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into one or more new kinds of matter. It yields new matter and new molecules. Permanent
Three classifications of matter elements, compounds, and mixtures
Elements are pure substances that cannot be broken down (decomposed) into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Have one kind of atom.
Compounds a pure substance made up of two or more elements in a fixed proportion by weight. Has two or more elements that have been chemically combined.
Law of Constant Composition "Definite Proportions" a pure compound, whatever its source, always contains definite, or constant proportions of the elements by mass
Matter any particular kind of material. Matter is either a pure substance or a mixture of pure substances
Pure Substance is a material that cannot be separates into different materials by any physical process.
Pure substance is a single chemical with definite physical properties
Mixture is a material that can be separated by physical processes into two or more substances. It contains two or more pure substances that are not chemically combined
Two types of mixtures Homogeneous and Heterogeneous
Homogeneous mixture is uniform in its properties throughout. Density and other physical properties are the same at every point in this mixture. Ex- a solution
Heterogeneous mixture that consists of physically distant parts with different properties. occurs when components of mixture do not mix well
Created by: douglal