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Acid Base

QuestionAnswer
Buffer system prevents changes in pH of body fluids by removing hydrogen ions
Extracelluluar buffer system bicarbonate-carbonic acid - assessed with ABG
kidneys regulate the bicarbonate level
metabolic acidosis low pH, low bicarbonate
metabokic alkalosis high pH, high bicarbonate
ABG arterial blood gases-measure acid base balance
pH 7.35-7.45 normal range
PCO2 35-45 mmHG normal range
P02 > 80 mmHG normal range
HCO3- (bicarbonate) 22-26 mEq/L
Oxygen saturation > 94% on room air
metabolic acidosis can cause headache, confusion, drowsiness, increased repiratory rate depth, nausea and vomiting
metabolic acidosis common diagnosis: loss of bicarbonate due to diarrhea, lower abdominal fistula, ureterostomies and use of diuretics
Treatment includes adminsitering bicarbonate, serum potassium is monitored closely and treat the cause metabolic acidosis
metabolic alkalosis causes are vomiting, gastric suction with loss of hydrogen and chloride ions
gastic fluid high acidity when vomiting you loss acid becomes alkaline
metabolic alkalosis loss of potassium from diuretic therapy, (Lasix) ,chronic ingestion of milk and calcium carbonate
metabolic alkalosis symptoms of decreased calcium tingling of the fingers, dizziness and hypertonic muscles. tachycardia can occur
Treatment includes restore nomal fluid volume by administering sodium chloride fluids, give potassium, decrease gastric suction, metabokic alkalosis
respiratory acidosis pH is low and the PaCO2 is high
respiratory acidosis inadequate excretion of CO2 with inadequate ventilation, increase carbonic acid
respiratory acidosis hypercapnea, increase pulse and respiratory rate, increase blood pressure, mental cloudiness or confusion
COPD respiratory acidosis
Treatment bronchial dilators to reduce bronchospasms,antibiotics for infection, hydration, respiratory acidosis
respiratory alkalosis hyperventilating, blowing off of CO2
respiratory alkalosis high pH and low PaCO2
anxiety-have thepatient breath more slowly into a paperbag respiratory alkalosis
Created by: N122-medsurg