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Long term complications

Macrovascular diseases change to medium or large blood vessels; CAD, MI, PVD, MI
Microvascular diseases retinopathy, nephropathy,peripheral neuropathy
astherosclerotic changes causes an increased incidence of occlucisve peripeheral arterial disease
retinopathy leading cause of blindness
retinopathy changes int he small blood vessels in the retina
retinopathy occurs in type 1 and majority of type 2 diabetics
retunopathy may slow the progression by means of controlloing hypertension, control blood glucose and cessation of smoking
nephropathy accounts for 50% of new caes of end stage kidney disease
nephropathy type1 show kidney changes after 10-15 years
albumin important blood proteins that leak into the urine
24 hour urine sample check urine for microalbuminuria ; should not exceed 30 mg/24 hours on 2 consecutive samples
nephropathy addition of ACE inhibitors, avoid nephrotoxic medication, low protein diet,
end stage kidney disease 2 types of treatments; peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis
peripheral neuropathy affects distal portions of nerves of the lower extremities
peripheral neuropathy prickling, tingling, burning sensation
sudomotor neuropathy decrease or absence of sweating
diabetic neuropathy only cause of impotence in men with diabetes
Amputation 50-70% are performed on diabetics;50% of these are thought to be preventable
Preventive foot care inspect feet daily, use a mirror to check bottom of feet, wash feet in warm water NOT hot
Created by: N122-medsurg