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Exam 5 Drugs


Benadryl Therapeutic Class - Antihistamines, Antitussives Indications - Relief of allergic symptoms due to histamine release, Parkinson's disease, and dystonic reactions from meds, Mild nighttime sedation, motion sickness Names - diphenhydramine
Diphenhydramine Action Antagonzies the effects of histamine at H-1-receptor sites; does not bind to or inactivate histamine. Significant CNS depressant and anticholinergic properties.
Benadryl Pharmacokinetics Well absorbed after oral or IM administration but 40-60% of an oral dose reaches systemic circulation due to first-pass metabolism. Widely distributed. Crosses the placenta; enters breast milk. 95% metabolized by the liver
Diphenhydramine Contraindications Hypersensitivity, acute attacks of asthma, lactation, Known alcohol intolerance. Use cautiously with Severe liver disease, Angle-closure glaucoma, Seizure disorders, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Peptic ulcer
Sudafed Therapeutic Class - allergy, cold and cough remedies, nasal drying agents/decongestants; adrenergics/alpha adrenergic agonists Indications - Nasal congestion associated with acute urt infection, combo with antihistamines Name - pseudoephedrine
Pseudoephedrine Action Stimulates alpha- and beta- adrenergic receptors Produces vasoconstriction in the rt mucosa, possible bronchodilation Reduces nasal congestion, hyperemia, and swelling in nasal passages
Sudafed Pharmcokinetics Well absorbed after oral administration, appears to enter the CSF; probably crosses the placenta and enters breasts milk. Partially metabolized by the liver. 55-75% excreted unchanged by the kidneys
Pseudoephedrine Contradictions Hypersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines; Hypertension, severe coronary artery disease; Concurrent MAO inhibitor therapy, known alcohol intolerance Use cautiously with - Hyperthyroidism, DM, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Ischemic heart disease, Glaucoma
Beconase Therapeutic Class - anti-inflammatories (steroidal), corticosteroids Indications - Seasonal allergic or perennial rhinitis, prophylactic treatment of recurrence of nasal polyps following surgical removal Name - Beclomethasone
Beclomethasone Action Potent, locally acting anti-inflammatory and immune modifier, decreases symptoms of allergic or nonallergic rhinitis, prevention of recurrence of nasal polyps
Beconase Pharmacokinetics 27-44% absorbed, acts locally, crosses the placenta, and enters breast milk in small amounts, converts to beclomethasone 17-monopropionate; 60% excreted in feces, 12% in urine
Beclomethasone Contraindications Hypersensitivity Use Cautiously if theres active untreated infections, DM or glaucoma, underlying immunosuppression, system corticosteroid therapy, recent nasal trauma, septal ulcers, or surgery, (wound healing may be impaired by nasal corticosteroids)
Atrovent Therapeutic Class - allergy, cold and cough remedies, bronchodilators, anticholinergics Indications - maintenance therapy of reversible airway obstruction due to COPD, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, rhinorrhea Name - Ipratropium
Ipratropium Action Inhibits cholinergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscles, resulting in decreased concentrations of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, producing local bronchodilation, also inhibits secretions from glands lining the nasal mucosa, decreased rhinorrhea
Atrovent Pharmacokinetics Minimal systemic absorption 2% for inhale, 20% for aerosol, 15% of dose reaches lower airways after inhale, small amounts absorbed are metabolized by the liver
Ipratropium Contraindications Hypersensitivity to Ipratropium, atropine, belladonna alkaloids, or bromide, avoid during acute bronchospasm Use cautiously in - bladder neck obstruction, prostatic hyperplasia, glaucoma, or urinary retention. Geri may be more sensitive to effects
Rifampin Therapeutic Class - antituberculars, rifamycins Indications - Active TB, elimination of miningococcal carriers, prophylactic treatment of disease caused by haemophilus influenzae type B in close contacts, synergizes with other meds for S. aureus
Rifampin Action Inhibits RNA synthesis by blocking RNA transcription in susceptible organisms, bactericidal action against susceptible organisms, works against mycobacterium, st. aureus, H. influenzae, legionella pneumophila, neisseria meningitidis
Rifampin Pharmacokinetics Well absorbed following oral administration, widely distributed; enters CSF. Crosses placenta; enters breast milk, 80% protein binding, mostly metabolized by the liver 60% eliminated in feces via billiary elimination
Rifampin Contraindications Hypersensitivity, concurrent use of of meds Use cautiously in history of liver disease, DM, use of hepatotoxic agent, pregnancy
Guaifenesin Therapeutic Class - Allergy cold and cough remedies, expectorant Indications - coughs associated with viral urt infections
Guaifenesin Action Reduces viscosity of tenacious secretions by increasing rt fluid, mobilization and subsequent expectoration of mucus
Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Well absorbed after oral administration, renally excreted as metabolites
Guaifenesin Contraindications Hypersensitivity, alcohol intolerance, avoid pts with phenylketonuria Use cautiously in cough lasting >1 wk or coughs with fever rash or headache, pts receiving disulfiram, dm pts
Epinephrine Therapeutic Class - antiasthmatics, bronchodilators, vasopressors, adrenergics Indications - management of airway disease due to asthma or COPD, management of severe allergic reactions, management of cardiac arrest, airway obstruction adjunct anesthesia
Epinephrine Action accumulates cycle adenosine monophosphate at beta adrenergic receptors, affects beta 1/2 receptors, produces bronchodilation, has alpha-adrenegic agonist propertics, results vasoconstriction, inhibits release of mediators of hypersensitivty in mast cells
Epinephrine Pharmacokinetics Absorbed following subcut administration; some absorption may occur following repeated inhalation large doses, crosses placenta, enters breast milk
Created by: ubilockon