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Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology Definitions 5

QuestionAnswer
Pneumothorax the collapse of a lung and subsequent escape of air into the pleural cavity between the lung and the chest wall that is caused by trauma, environmental factors or spontaneous occurrence and results in a sudden pain in the chest.
Polycthemia a condition characterized by an increase in production of RBCs in the blood.
Polycythemia Vera a chronic, progressive disease that is characterized by overgrowth of the bone marrow, excessive red blood cell production and an enlarged spleen and causes headache, inability to concentrate and pain the fingers and toes. In later stages can expand blo
Portal hypertension an increase in blood pressure in the veins of the portal system resulting from obstruction in the liver, such as that seen in cirrhosis, which causes enlargement of the spleen and collateral veins.
Post hemorrhagic anemia a type of normocytic-normochromic anemia that is caused by sudden blood loss in an individual with normal iron stores and triggers a compensatory response in which water and electrolytes from tissues and interstial spaces are used to expand plasma volume
PTSD a psychological disorder that may develop in individuals who have experienced or witnessed traumatic events and is characterized by recurrent flashbacks of the traumatic event, night mares, irritability, anxiety, fatigue, forgetfulness, and social withdr
Preload the volume of blood in the ventricles after atrial contraction and ventricular filling.
Primary hypertension a condition of elevated blood pressure of unknown etiology that is accompanied by increased total peripheral vascular resistance by vasoconstriction, increased cardiac output or both.
Promthrombin time (PT) a diagnostic test that measures the amount of time required for plasma to clot.
Protopathic sensation of pain, head, cold or pressure without the ability to localize the stimulus.
Pulmonary embolus a condition in which a blood clot dislodges from its site of origin and embolizes to the arterial blood supply of one of the lungs, resulting in SOB, and difficulty breathing, rapid breathing is painful, cough and in severe cases, hypotension, shock, LOC
Pulmonary fibrosis scarring of the lungs caused by any of several conditions such as sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pnuemoniaits, RA, lupus, asbestosis, and certain medications and causing SOB, coughs, and diminished exercise tolerance.
Pulmonary stenosis a condition in which the opening into the pulmonary artery from the right ventricle narrows.
Purkinje fibers specialized muscle fibers that are located in the ventricular walls of the heart and function to initiate an electrical impulse that creates coordinated contraction of the heart.
Rales fine crackles from fluid secretions in the airways; the term rale has been replaced with crackles.
Raynaud disease a condition in which the blood vessels spasm because of inadequate blood supply, resulting in discorlration of the fingers and/or the toes after exposure to changes in temperature or emotional events.
Reflex arc a neural pathway that contains a receptor, an afferent nerve fiber, and efferent nerve fiber, and effecter and possibly one or more interneuron and is involved in stereotyped, automatic involuntary response to stimulus.
Residual lung volume the volume f air left in the lungs after maximal expiratory effort.
Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn a condition, also known as hyaline membrane disease, that is a type of respiratory distress in newborns, most often in prematurely born infants, those born by cesarean section, or those having a diabetic mother; the immature lungs do not produce enough s
Restrictive cardiomyopathy any group of disorders in which the heart chambers are unable to fill with blood completely because of stiffness of the heart and the inability of heart muscle to relax during diastole.
Reye syndrome a type of encephalopathy that occurs primarily in children after a viral infection such as chicken pox or influenza and is characterized by fever, vomiting, fatty liver, disorientation and coma.
Rheumatic fever an inflammatory disease that is associated with recent streptococcal infection and causes inflammation of the joints, fever, jerky movements, nodules under the skin and skin rash and often is followed by serious heart damage or disease.
Rhonchi is a term used to describe both low-pitched wheezing sounds with a snoring quality when the airway narrowing is the larger airways, and high-pitched wheezing sounds with a squeaking quality when the airway narrowing is in the smaller airways. Rhonchi oc
Right heart failure a condition in which the right side of the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently because of left side heart failure, lung disease, congenital heart disease, clotting pulmonary arteries, pulmonary hypertension or heart valve disease.
Saccular aneurysm (berry aneurysm) a localized, progressively growing sac that affects only a portion of the circumference of the arterial wall and may be the result of congenital anomalies or degeneration.
Schizophrenia a psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, loosening of association, disturbances in mood and sense of self and relationship to the external world, and bizarre, purposeless behavior.
Scoliosis a condition in which the spine is curved sideways to varying degrees.
Secondary hypertension a condition of elevated blood pressure that is associated primarily with renal disease by renin-dependent mechanism or a fluid volume - dependent mechanism.
Seizure a transient event of excessive neurologic activity that is disorderly and results in disturbances of motor, sensory and autonomic function and alters behavior and the state of consciousness.
Semi lunar valve one of three crescent-shaped cusps of a vale that prevents regurgitation of blood into the ventricles.
Senile plaque the excessive accumulation of proteins that form neuorfibrillay tangles and prevents intracellular transport and neurotransmission.
Septic shock a condition caused by infection of the abdomen and pelvis after trauma or surgery that can result in organ failure and death.
Shock a condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues that is result of inadequate pumping by the heart, a reduction in blood volume, or a reduction in blood pressure and results in slowing of vital fun
Sideroblastic anemia refractory anemia of varying severity that is caused by altered mitochondrial metabolism and is marked by sideroblasts in the bone marrow.
SA node a group o specialize cells that are located on the wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the superiovena cava and act to set the heart rate by spontaneously depolarizing and e3xciting surrounding tissues.
Spinal bifida a congenital defect in which the spinal column is not closed correctly causing protrusion of that part of the meninges or spinal cord.
Spinal stenosis narrowing of the spinal canal as a result of congenital anomaly or spinal degeneration, resulting in pain, parenthesis and neurogenic claudication.
Stable angina a condition in which ischemic attacks occur at predictable frequencies and duration after activities that increase myocardial oxygen demands such as exercise and stress.
Stridor is a harsh, high-pitched, creaking sound, which is significant for obstruction in the upper airway, especially of the trachea or larynx
Subdural hematoma collection of blood between the inner surface of the durra mater and the surface of the brain caused by rupture of bridging veins of the subdural region.
Sydenham chorea (St. Vitus dance) a nervous condition most commonly occurring in children or in fetuses during pregnancy that is associated with rheumatic fever and causes rapid, uncoordinated jerky, involuntary movements of the body, particularly the face, feet and hands.
Synapse small gap between a neuron and another cell when impulses pass from cell to cell via release of neurotransmitter or by direct electrical connection.
Systole the period of time during which the chambers of the heart contract and force blood of the chambers.
Systolic blood pressure stroke volume output and the distensibility of the aorta.
Systolic heart failure a condition in which the heart muscle contracts so weakly that not enough oxygenated blood is pumped throughout the body.
Tachypnea rapid, shallow breathing characterized by a rate of breathing above 24 breaths per minute in adults.
Tension headache headache caused by emotional strain or overwork that tends to be focused in the occipital region and can be continuous for months.
Teratology of Fallot a congenital condition that is characterized by four malformations including ventricular septal defect, misplacement of the origin of the aorta, narrowing of the pulmonary artery, and enlargement of the right ventricle.
Thrombin time a diagnostic test that measures the rate of fribronlgen to fibrin conversion when thrombin has been introduced.
Thromoangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease) a condition in which the medium sized arteries and veins are inflamed because of thrombotic occlusion, resulting in schema and gangrene.
Thrombocytemia a condition in which the number of platelets in the blood is increased resulting in clot formation.
Thrombocytopenia a condition in which the number of platelets in the blood is severely decreased.
Thromophilia a condition in which the coagulation system is abnormal and increases the risk for thrombosis
Thrombophlebitis a condition in which veins become inflamed because of a blood clot or thrombus secondary to prolonged sitting or clotting disorder.
Thrombotic stroke stroke symptoms caused by thrombosis that is typically secondary to atherosclerosis.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura a disorder of blood coagulation caused by an enzymatic deficiency that is characterized by a reduced number of platelets in the blood, the formation of blood clots in tissue arteries and capillaries and neurologic damage.
Thrombus a stationary mass of clotted blood or other formed elements that remains attached to its place of origin along the wall of a blood vessel, frequently obstructing the circulation, may result from immobility, dehydration (Plural: thrombi)
Traumatic aneurysm aneurysm caused by weakening of arterial walls, penetrating missile, or after neurosurgery or neuroimaging after injury.
Tricuspid valve a three-segmented valve of the heart that prevents regurgitation of blood from the right ventricle into right atrium.
Troponin a protein complex that provides calcium binding sites to muscle cells.
Truncus arteriosus a congenital defect in which large great vessel arteries from a ventricular septal defect and doses not divide into the aorta and pulmonary artery, resulting in one vessel carrying blood both to the body and to the lungs.
Unstable angina a condition in which unprovoked ischemic attacks occur at unpredictable frequencies and may increase in severity.
Upper airway obstruction condition in which sites of anatomic narrowing such as the hypo pharynx at the base of the tongue and the false and true vocal cords at the laryngeal opening are obstructed.
Vasogenic edema an accumulation of fluid in the cerebrum that is typically caused by an increase in capillary endothelial cell permeability and usually occurs near a tumor.
Ventilation-perfusion ratio (V/Q) the relationship between ventilation and blood flow in the lung that is measure by calculating the difference between the alveolar and arterial partial pressured of oxygen.
Ventricular septal defect a congenital malformation in which the wall between the left and right ventricles has a hole that allows blood to travel between the left and right ventricles potentially leading to congestive heart failure.
Vital capacity Maximal amount of air that can be taken in and exhaled with forceful expiration.
Von Willebrand disease an inherited disease in which the von Willebrand factor proteins that are made in the blood vessel and function to control platelet activity are abnormal or absent resulting in a tendency to hemorrhage.
Wheezing is a continuous, high pitched, whistling sound; it is significant for obstruction or tightness in the small airways.
Hemoglobin the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells. Transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
Hematocrit also called packed cell volume (PCV), is the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by RBCs. 47% in men, 42% in women.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND) waking up suddenly during the night, feeling short of breath.
Parasympathetic nervous system division of the ANS cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glandular tissue, “rest and repose”.
Ventilation, diffusion, perfusion, respiration 4 major processes occuring as you breathe.
Ventilation process of moving air into and out of the trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Diffusion process of moving and exchanging the oxygen acquired during ventilation and carbon dioxide waste across the alveolar capillary membranes.
Perfusion process of supplying oxygenated blood to the lungs and organ systems via the blood vessels.
Respiration process in which cells throughout the body use oxygen aerobically to make energy.
Tidal Volume is the amount of air that is exhaled after passive inspirations: this is the volume of air going in and out of the lungs at rest; in adults, this volume is approximately 500 cc.
Vital Capacity is the maximal amount of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs with forced inhalation and exhalation.
Forced vital capacity is the maximal amount of air that is exhaled from the lungs during a forced exhalation.
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) the maximal amount of air that can be expired from the lungs in 1 second.
Residual volume the volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.
Total lung capacity (TLC) the total amount of air in the lungs when they are maximally expanded and is the sum of the vital capacity and residual volume.
Created by: ifabular