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Pathophysiology Definitions 4

Mitral valve a valve in the heart that lies between the left atrium and left ventricle and functions to allow blood to flow into the left ventricle during ventricular diastole and to prevent regurgitation from the ventricle to the left atrium during systole.
Mitral valve prolapsed syndrome a condition in which the mitral valve cannot close properly because of one or both flaps being too large, possibly resulting in mitral valve regurgitation.
Multiple sclerosis chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that causes inflammation and scarring of myelin sheaths.
Myasthenia gravis neuromuscular disorder caused by an autoimmune response in which antibodies to acetylcholine receptors impair neuromuscular transmission.
Mycotic aneurysm aneurysm that is caused by bacterial for fungal growth in the vessel or infection of an arteriosclerotic aneurysm.
Myelodysplasia abnormal formation of the spinal cord
Myelodysplastic syndrome a group of hematologic conditions characterized by ineffective production of blood cells, resulting in anemia that requires chronic blood transfusions
Myocardial infarction a heart condition of sudden onset in which muscle tissue dies because of a lack of blood flow, resulting in chest pain (crushing chest pain) or discomfort, weakness, sweating, nausea, and vomiting, and possibly loss of consciousness. Gender differences
Myocardial oxygen consumption the amount of oxygen consumed by cardiac muscle cells during work, as determined by myocyte contraction and factors that enhance or impair this contraction.
Myosin a protein in muscle cells that is arranged in long filaments called thick filaments and attached to actin filaments in a sliding motion during muscle contraction.
Myotonia a neuromuscular disorder in which relation after voluntary contraction is delayed.
Neuroblastoma a malignant tumor containing neuroblast cells that originate in the ANS or the adrenal medulla and is most common in infants and young children.
Neurogenic bladder dysfunction the underactivity or overactivity of the bladder caused by nervous system damage that prevents the bladder muscles from contracting to empty the bladder completely or that causes rapid bladder contraction that causes too rapid or frequent emptying.
Neurogenic bowel dysfunction a term that relates colon dysfunction to a lack of nervous control. The consequences of this altered function include factors such as incontinence, urgency, and increased time spent in bowel care.
Neuorgenic detrusor overactivity a neurologic abnormality that impairs communication between the bladder and the CNS, preventing the brain from inhibiting the detrusor muscles that control urination.
Neurogenic shock a type of shock caused by the sudden loss of the SNS signals to the smooth muscle in vessel walls, causing the vessels to relax and decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure
Neuroglial cell supporting cell that forms myelin, transports material and nutrients to neurons, maintains the ionic balance of neurons, and phagocytosis nerve waste products.
Neuron nerve cell of the CNS that contains nucleus within the cell body, dendrites that receive messages from other cells and axons that transmit messages to other cells.
Neuropathic pain pain that is perceived as burning or pins and needles or electric shock that is produced by the stimulation of pain, touch, and temperature receptors of the same area.
Neurotransmitter a chemical that is stored in vesicles in the axon terminal and is released into the synapse in response to an action potential. - a courier, a messenger. - difficulty doing motor. Cognitive issues - Alzheimers - dopamine, ACTH,
Neutropenia the absence of neurtophils in the blood.
Noncommunicating hydrocephalus CSG accumulation within the skull that is caused by obstruction of the CSF pathways.
Normocytic-normochromic anemia a condition in which erythrocytes are of normal size and hemoglobin content but of insufficient number and that is usually caused by hereditary spherocytosis, drug induced anemia and anemia secondary to other malignancies.
Nystagmus involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement of eyeball in the horizontal, vertical or rotational direction.
Obsessive compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder characterized by obsessive through and repetitive compulsive actions, such as cleaning, checking or counting.
Obstructive breathing prolonged and incomplete expiration to overcome increased airway resistance and air trapping. COPD, asthma and chronic bronchitis are reasons for the occurrence.
Oligodendroglia neuralgia cell of the CNS that coils around the axon of the neuro to form a myelin sheath.
Oligodendroglioma a slow-growing mass of the oligodendrocytes that is usually benign.
Orthostatic (postural) hypotension a condition in which blood pressure suddenly falls when a person assumes a standing position, resulting in dizziness, light headedness, blurred vision, and temporary loss of consciousness.
Parkinson Disease degeneration of the basal ganglia dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway that causes hypokinesia, tremor, and muscular rigidity.
Partial seizure (focal seizure) a seizure caused by focused excessive electrical activity caused by a lesion in a particular region.
Peripheral artery disease any of a group of a diseases caused by the obstruction of large peripheral arteries secondary to atherosclerosis, inflammatory process, embolism or thrombus formation that caused ischemia
Pernicious anemia an autoimmune disorder that causes a deficiency in intrinsic factor resulting in the inability to absorb vitamin B12 and a subsequent increase in the production of abnormal erythrocytes. - the intrinsic factor that dowens’t make b12 available
Phantom limb pain pain experienced in an amputated limb after the stump has healed that may be caused by spontaneous firing of afferent pain fibers n the spinal cord that were previously associated with the limb.
Peripheral vascular resistance blood pressure needed to overcome the resistance to flow in the circulatory system
Platelet cellular fragment formed from megakaryocytes that circulates in the blood and is important in anticoagulation, stimulation of inflammation and tissue growth and destroying bacteria.
Pleural effusion a medical condition in which fluid accumulated in the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs and thereby makes breathing difficult.
Pneumoconiosis a chronic disease of the lungs typically seen in miners, sandblasters, and metal grinders that is caused by repeated inhalation of dust particles, including ion oxides, silicates, and carbonates, that collects in the lungs and become sites for the format
Pneumonia an infection of one or both lungs caused by bacterium, virus, fungus or other organism that enters the body through respiratory passages and causes high fever, chills, pain in the chest, difficulty in breathing, cough with sputum and possibly bluish skin
Created by: ifabular