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Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology Definitions 3

QuestionAnswer
Hemolytic disease of the newborn a condition that affects a fetus or newborn in which red blood cells breakdown because of antibodies made by the mother that are directed against the infant’s red cells, potentially resulting in anemia, heart failure, jaundice, and brain damage if left
Hemophilia A (classic hemophilia) a genetic disorder in which a mutation in factor VII causes prolonged clotting time, decreased formation of thromboplastin, and diminished conversion of prothrombin.
Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) a genetic disorder similar to hemophilia A in terms of symptoms but with a mutation in the factor IX gene.
Hemophilia C (factor XI deficiency) a genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency in factor Xi, resulting in a mild form of hemophilia.
Hemoptysis a manifestation in which blood or blood- stained sputum is spit or coughed from bronchi, larynx, trachea or lungs.
Hemorrhagic stroke (intracranial hemorrhage) stroke usually caused by hypertension that results in bleeding in the brain and typically increases intracranial pressure and may lead to death.
Huntington’s disease an autosomal dominant disease causing a progressive increase in involuntary, jerky, dyskinetic movements, mental deterioration, and premature death.
Hyperpnea increased in the rate and the depth of breathing. Hyperpnea is response to PaO2/PaCO2 requirements, hyperventilation occurs in excess of what is needed to maintain PaCO2.
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy a genetic disorder caused by various mutations that thicken the heart muscle, possibly leading to obstruction of blood flow and heart dysfunction.
Hyperventilation a condition in which breathing faster or deeper than necessary reduces carbon dioxide concentration resulting in numbness or tingling in the hands, feet and lips, lightheadedness, dizziness, headache, chest pain and sometimes fainting.
Hypoplastic anemia a condition in which anemia results from greatly depressed, inadequately functioning bone marrow and smaller than normal erythrocytes.
Hypoventilation a condition in which ventilation is inadequate for proper gas exchange, causing an increase in carbon dioxide concentration and subsequent respiratory acidosis.
Hypovolemia decreased blood volume capable of causing increased thirst response, hypotension, tachycardia, and decreased urinary output.
Hypovolemic shock a state of shock caused by a decrease in blood volume secondary to dehydration, bleeding and drugs such as diuretics and vasodilators.
Hypoxemia insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood.
Hypoxia a state in which oxygen level reaching cells is insufficient, resulting in tissue injury; may be caused by a reduction in oxygen content of inspired air, a decrease in hemoglobin available for oxygen binding, or cardiovascular or respiratory disease.
Hypercapnia excess amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
Hypocapnea a deficiency of carbon dioxide in the blood
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura a condition in which the number of platelets in the blood is reduced by the production of antibodies against platelets and that is characterized by ecchymosed and hemorrhages from mucous membranes, anemia, and extreme weakness.
Immune hemolytic anemia and acquired hemolytic anemia in which isoantibodies or autoantibodies are produced in response to drugs, toxins, or other antigens.
Inotropic agent a substance that affects muscle contraction, especially contraction of the heart muscle.
Interstitial edema cerebral edema in which interstitial fluid accumulates in conjunction with hydrocephalus.
Intracerebral hematoma (intraparencymal hemorrhage) blood accumulation that partially clots inside the brain usual in the frontal and temporal lobes.
Iron deficiency anemia a condition caused by insufficient dietary intake or absorption of iron, resulting in decreased incorporation of hemoglobin into RBCs and subsequent feelings of fatigue, weakness, and SOBG as well as pale earlobes, palms, and conjunctivae.
Isolated systolic hypertension a condition that is caused by loss of elasticity of the arteries resulting in an increase in cardiac output or stroke volume, a systolic blood pressure consistently above 160 mm Hg and a diasto.lic pressure below 90 mm Hg.
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy a type of epilepsy that occurs in an adolescents and young adults usually upon awakening and I characterized by jerks of the neck, shoulder and arms and by clonic-tonic-clonic seizures.
Kussmaul respirations (hyperpnea) deep, rapid respiration commonly seen in conditions causing acidosis.
Lennox - Fastaut syndrome a generalized myoclonic epilepsy that occurs in children between 1 and 5 years of age as a result of various cerebral afflictions such as perinatal hypoxia, hemorrhage, encephalitis and metabolic disorders of the brain and is characterized by mental reta
Macrocytic anemia (megaloblastic anemia) a condition characterized by a deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid caused by inadequate intake or insufficient absorption secondary to alcoholism or drugs that inhibit DNA replication.
Major (unipolar) depression severely depressed mood and loss of pleasure that may occur suddenly or slowly persists for at least 2 weeks and may occur throughout life.
Malignant hypertension a complication of hypertension in which blood pressure is severely elevated and organ damage occurs in the eyes, brain, lung and/or kidney.
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and average blood pressure in an individual that is equal to diastolic pressure plus 1/3 of the pulse pressure and is considered the perfusion pressure of organs in the body.
Medullablastoma a malignant cerebellar tumor near the fourth ventricle that is most often found in children and consists of neoplastic cells that resemble the undifferentiated cells of the neural tube.
Meningioma a slow-growing mass of meninges that is usually benign but increases intracranial pressure
Meningocele neural tube defect in the skull or spinal column that forms a cyst filled with cerebrospinal fluid through which the meninges of the brain protrude.
Microcephaly defect in which failure of normal brain growth causes a delayed skull growth and production of a small head.
Microcytic-hypochromic anemia a condition in which red blood cells are smaller than normal.
Migraine headache headache that usually begins in the temporal region unilaterally after constriction of cranial arteries and may cause irritability, nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, and photophobia.
Mild concussion temporary axonal disturbances without the loss of consciousness in response to a violent blow, jarring, shaking, or other closed head injury.
Minute ventilation the volume of gas inhaled into and expelled from the lungs per minute or tidal volume multiplied by ventilation rate.
Created by: ifabular