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Pathophysiology Definitions 2

Cheyne-stokes respirations an abnormality of the pattern of breathing in which tidal volume gradually increases followed by a gradual decrease and a period of apnea before returning to a normal respiratory pattern; waxing and waning of respirations with periods of apnea.
COPD any of a group of irreversible respiratory diseases that are characterized by airflow obstruction or limitation, usually caused by smoking.
Coarctation of the aorta a condition in which the aorta narrows in the area where the ductus arteriosus inserts; narrowing usually occurs preductal in children and postductal in adults.
Communicating (extra ventricular) hydrocephalus a disorder in which the cerebrospinal fluid pathways are intact but CSF absorption is impaired.
Congestive heart failure (left heart failure) a condition in which the heart cannot expel sufficient blood to satisfy the metabolic demands of the body as a result of disease such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular insufficiency, or rheumatic heart disease
Contrecoup brain injury resulting from the brain hitting the inside of the skull on the side opposite the site of blunt force trauma.
Cor pulmonale right sided heart failure caused by prolonged hypertension secondary to pulmonary hypertension.
Coup when referring to brain trauma, the brain injury that occurs at the site of blunt force to the head; it results from the rapid acceleration and then deceleration of the brain as it hits the inside of the skull.
Crackles are snapping, popping, or bubbling sounds emitted during inspiration and expiration and caused by fluid accumulation in the airways.
Craniopharyngioma a brain tumor that develops in the pituitary gland and most often affects children, causing headache, seizure, diabetes insipidus, early onset of puberty and delayed growth.
Croup a viral infection of the respiratory system that involves the larynx, trachea, and the airways leading to the lungs and that can result in serious breathing difficulties, hoarseness, sore throat, and a hacking cough.
Cyanosis a condition in which the skin, mucous membranes, and nail beds appear blue because of a lack of oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood secondary to congenital heart defects, slowed circulation or possibly poison.
Cystic fibrosis a genetic disorder of the exocrine glands caused by a mutation in the CF transmembrane regulator gene causing impairment in chloride transfer across cell membranes and subsequent chloride and water accumulation in organs and thickened secretions that blo
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) the formation of one or more thrombi in the deep veins, usually of the lower extremity.
Dementia intellectual difficulties in areas such as memory, concentration, and judgment, resulting from a disease or disorder of the brain.
Diastole the period of time during which the heart relaxes after contraction, resulting in a pressure drop in the relaxed region.
Diastolic heart failure a condition in which heart contractions are normal but the ventricle does not relax completely so less blood enters the heart.
Diffuse brain injury (diffuse axonal injury) injury to neuronal axons in many areas of the brain caused by stretching and shearing forces received during brain injury.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (congestive cardiomyopathy) a condition in which the heart, usually the left ventricle, is enlarged and weakened, which results in the need for heart transplantation.
Diminished breath sounds is a term used to describe quieter breath sounds that are barely audible; this is significant for complete obstruction in one or more airways.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) a condition in which the blood coagulates through the entire body after the uncontrolled activation of clotting factors and fibrinolytic enzymes throughout small blood vessels, resulting in platelet and coagulation factor depletion and increased bleeding
Dysphasia impairment of speech that manifests as the inability to arrange words in logical order
Dyspnea shortness of breath and difficulty in breathing usually caused by lung or heart disease; subjective complaints of breathlessness or difficulty breathing
Emboli a mass of clotted blood or other formed elements; such as bubbles of air, calcium fragments, or a bit of tissue or tumor, which circulates in the blood-stream until it becomes lodged in a vessel, obstructing the circulation. A foreign mass that is trans
Embolic stroke stroke caused by blockage of cerebral vessels.
Empyema (infected pleural effusion) a condition in which purulent fluid is persistently discharged into the pleural space as a result of complications of bacterial infections.
Encephalitis inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus.
Encephalocele congenital abnormality in which a gap in the skull results in a protrusion of brain material.
Encephalopathy any of the various diseases or syndromes of the brain. ****
End-diastolic pressure the pressure measured in the ventricles at the end of diastolic that is used to approximate the degree of preload.
End-diastolic volume the amount of blood found in the ventricle before a cardiac contraction; used as a measure of diastolic function
Ependymoma intracranial tumor that is most commonly found in children and that typically arises from the inner lining of the fourth ventricle and the spinal canal.
Epidural Hematoma collection of blood between the inner surface of the skull and the durra caused by torn arteries secondary to a skull fracture.
Epilepsy any of a group of syndromes characterized by recurring seizures of an unknown cause.
Eupnea the expected pattern of breathing characterized by a rate between 10-20 breaths per minute in adults, 500-800 cc in depth and a regular rhythm
Ferritin a protein that can store about 4500 iron ions in a hollow shell where the iron combines with phosphate and hydroxide ions to form crystallites.
Frank-Starling law of the heart the idea that changes in the volume of blood filling the heart will change the volume that is ejected by the same amount because the force of the contraction will increase as the heart is filled with more blood.
Gate controlled theory a proposal that a pain gate is present in the spinal cord that allows or blocks pain signals to the brain depending on whether the impulse is traveling on a large or small afferent fiber.
Generalized seizure a seizure occurring bilaterally with no local focal point that involves the entire body, resulting in muscle rigidity, violent muscle contractions, and impaired or lost consciousness. Incontinence
Hemolytic anemia a condition in which the red blood cells are destroyed in response to certain toxic or infectious agents or in certain inherited blood disorders and the rate of breakdown exceeds the body’s ability to compensate. Transfusion reaction is an example of a
fine crackles crackles that are higher pitched with a shorter duration and signify fluid in smaller airways.
course crackles crackles that are louder and lower pitched and signify fluid in the larger airways.
pain, tenderness, swelling, warmth, and skin discoloration symptoms of DVT
Decerebrate posturing an abnormal body posture that involves rigid extension of the arms and legs, downward pointing of the toes, and backward arching of the head.
Decorticate posturing an abnormal posturing that involves rigidity, flexion of the arms, clenched fists, and extended legs. The arms are bent inward toward the body with the wrists and fingers bent and held on the chest.
Created by: ifabular