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Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology Definitions 1

QuestionAnswer
Absent breath sounds signifies no air movement through the lungs.
Afterload the tension or pressure that must be generated by a chamber of the heart in order to contract, such as that required to eject blood into the aorta
Aldosterone mineralocorticoid that is synthesized and secreted by the adrenal cortex and acts to regulate sodium and potassium balance by altering reabsorption in the kidney.
Anaphylactic shock a state of shock caused by a severe allergic reaction that lowers blood pressure and results in urticaria, breathing difficulties and possibly death. Presence of vasodilator substances in the blood.
Anemia a condition in which hemoglobin concentration is below normal because of a deficiency in red blood cells, a low level of hemoglobin in cells or both; it manifests as pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, weakness, dizziness, easy fatigability, and dro
Anemia of chronic disease mild to moderate anemia secondary to a chronic disease such as infection, inflammation, or malignancies that causes hypoferremia.
Aneurysm a localized dilation or ballooning of a blood vessel, usually found in the arteries at the base of the brain and in the aorta.
Angina pectoris a condition in which myocardial ischemia caused by reduced blood flow through the blood vessels of the heart cause chest pain. Ischemia - don’t have enough oxygen. Infarction - dead
Angiotensin I inactive product of the cleavage of angiotensinogen by rennin
Angiotensin II active hormone that is formed from the cleavage of angiotensin I by angiotensin-converting enzyme and acts to stimulate aldosterone secretion and to vasoconstriction.
Aortic stenosis a condition in which the aortic valves do not open completely, thereby increasing afterload so that more pressure must be generated in the left ventricle to eject blood, a condition that results in ventricular hypertrophy
Aphasia inability to articulate ideas or comprehend spoken or written language. --- 3 expressive, receptive, global (don’t have both)
Aplastic anemia a condition in which the bone marrow does not product adequate amounts of new cells to replenish the blood cells lost during insults such as an autoimmune disorder or exposure to radiation or substances such as benzene or certain drugs.
Apnea cessation of breathing for 10 seconds or longer.
Arteriosclerosis a condition in which the blood vessel walls, thicken, harden, lose elasticity, and typically accumulate lipids, resulting in elevated blood pressure and constriction of the coronary arteries and pain when walking caused by decreased perfusion to leg vess
Asthma a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease marked by periodic attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, a tight feeling in the chest, and a cough that produces mucus caused by an allergic reaction, certain drugs or irritants, exercise or emotional stres
Astrocyte neuroglial cell of the CNS that branches into many processes (bbb) and functions to fill spaces between neurons and surrounding blood vessels.
Ataxic breathing a breathing pattern of unpredictable irregularity. See this in severe head trauma and damage to the respiratory centers, brain abscesses, heat stroke, spinal meningitis, encephalitis.
Atelectasis a condition in which part of a lung or a whole lung collapses and the alveoli deflate as a result of surgery, smoking, or blockage of a bronchiole. Incomplete expansion of a portion of the lung. - dec breath sounds, pneumothorax, tachycardia, heart rate
Atherosclerosis a type of arteriosclerosis in which cholesterol and lipid deposits accumulate on the innermost layer of the walls of large and medium-sized arteries.
Atrial septal defect (ASD) any of a group of congenital heart diseases involving the interartrial septum of the heart that separates the right and left atria, which results in misdirected flow of blood between the two sides of the heart. ****
Atrioventricular defect a condition in which a large hole is present in the center of the heart where the wall between the upper chambers joins the wall between the lower chambers, and the tricuspid and mitral valves are formed into a single layer valve that crosses the defect.
Atrioventricular node the tissue between the atria and the ventricles that contains pacemaker cells and is capable of setting the heart rate but mainly functions to slowly conduct the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricle.
Autonomic Dysreflexia see spinal cord injury --- 3 key words - noxious stimuli, severe headache, severe HTN, tanking of heart rate - roll over, check skin - ingrown toenail
Baroreceptors nerve endings located in the heart, aortic arch, and carotid sinuses that sense changes in blood pressure and volume.
Brain stem death irreversible brain damage that renders an individual unresponsive to all stimuli and lacking in muscle activity such as that required for respiration and heart activity.
Bradypnea/hypoventilation slow breathing with regular depth and rate.
Bronchiectasis a condition in which the bronchi of the lungs become dilated in response to obstruction
Bronchiolitis obliterans a condition in which the bronchioles and possibly some of the bronchi are partly or completely obliterated by granulation and fibrotic tissue masses.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) a condition most often found in premature infants in which chronic pulmonary insufficiency occurs because of long-term artificial pulmonary ventilation.
Bundle of His bundle of specialized heart muscle cells located between the AV node and the ventricles that functions to conduct electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles.
Cardiac cycle the cycle of events that occur in the functioning heart from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the next, during which time an electrical impulse is conducted through the heart muscle.
Cardiogenic shock a type of shock that results from decreased cardiac output caused by heart disease in which the heart is unable to pump blood through the body, usually because of myocardial infarction - cells died
Cardiomyopathy a condition in which the cardiac muscle of the heart wall is deteriorated by ischemic or nonischemic mechanisms.
Cerebral death irreversible brain damage that renders an individual unresponsive to all stimuli but able to maintain the necessary respiratory and cardiovascular function of life.
Cerebral palsy a developmental brain injury that occurs before or shortly after birth that causes muscular impairment that affects motor function and also may alter speech and learning abilities.
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA, stroke) localized brain infarction that may result in facial, arm or leg numbness and weakness, confusion, difficulty speaking or understanding, visual disturbances, dizziness, loss of balance, difficulty walking and headache.
Dissecting aneurysm is a separation and bleeding between the layers of an arterial wall. - outpouching, media, intima
Hypoventilation refers to decreased and inadequate ventilation.
Created by: ifabular