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Biology Ch. 10 & 14


Why did Mendel choose to use peas in his genetic experiments? easy to grow in small area, produce lots of offspring, produce pure plants when they self-pollinate, many traits known
For several generations of peas, Mendel produced ... pure strains through self-pollination
What is pure? Alleles are the same for each trait
What type of experiment did mendel conduct? controlled
How did mendel control the pollination of the pea plants He removed the stamens
What did Mendel do after he removed the stamens He hand-pollinated the flowers using a paintbrush to cross different straits
After Mendel pollinated the flowers how did he analyze the results? He traced the traits through several generations.
P generation original parents
F1 generation 1st generation offspring from P generation. (1st filial generation)
F2 generation the 2nd generation offspring from f1 generation. (2nd filial generation)
What are mendel's three laws law of dominance, law of segregation, and law of independent assortment
What is the law of dominance If you cross homozygous parents only one form of the trait will appear in the f1 generation.
The dominant trait will always ____ show up.
Heterozygous pairs only express the _______ trait dominant
dominant allele code for dominant trait
recessive allele code for recessive trait
dominant trait appears in offspring
recessive trait hidden trait
Seed shape alleles round(R), wrinkled(r)
Seed color alleles yellow(Y), green(y)
Pod shape smooth(S) , wrinkled(s)
Pod color green(G) or yellow(g)
seed coat color gray-G or white-g
Flower position axial (a) or terminal (a)
plant height tall(t) or short(t)
flower color purple(P) or white(p)
genotype allele set or pair
homozygous same allele
heterozygous different allele
Is Tt hetereozygous or homozygous heterozygous
phenotype physical characteristics
How did mendel prevent the pea plants from self-pollinating? he took out the stamen
Define phenotype. appearance of trait
Use the letter b to write the genotype of a homozygous recessive individual and a heterozygous individual bb and Bb
If a pea plant possesses the following genotype of Tt, what type of height will it have it will be tall
Summarize Mendedl's law of segregation during the formation of gametes, the two allele for trait separate from each other
What does each gamete carry? a single copy of each gene
What are recombined at fertilization alleles
Where do the alleles that are recombined at fertilization come from? one from each parent, that produce the genotype for the traits of the offspring
Because a short plant reappeared in the F2 generation, what did Mendel find out? The allele for shortness had not disappeared, but the F1 generation carried it.
What proved mendel's law of segregation? the F1 cross
What are used to predict genetic cross outcomes? punnett squares
What do punnett squares give? a mathematical percentage for the offspring of a genetic cross/probability
What is the only way to receive a recessive trait? if both parents carry the trait
What are responsible for all heritable characteristics? inheritable factors or genes
A phenotype is based on what? a genotype
What is each trait based on? two alleles (1 from mom & 1 from dad)
True-breeding means what? homozygous (both alleles are the same)
The elegance of Mendel's experiments was partly due to what? consistency between his observations and hypothesis
What are human males' sex chromosomes heterogametic(XY)
Human females sex chromosomes are? homogametic
During fertilization, what is the probability that a female will result? 50%
What do chromosomes carry? genes
Where are genes located? on autosomes and sex chromosomes
autosomes are? body traits
sex chromosomes are? sex traits
however, certain genes present in the sex chromosomes ... control the body traits
The characteristics that are controlled by the genes that control the body traits are called ... sex-linked traits
The transmission of sex-linked traits from one generation to the next is called what? sex-linked inheritance
Where are certain sex-linked genes located? on the X
The genes that are only located on the X are called x-linked genes
The mode of ingeritance for x-linked genes is called what? x-linked inheritance
-x-linked recessive traits affect _____ more than____ males more than females
ARe female offspring of an affected male affected? no
What is the exception to the x-linked recessive rule when an affected male mates with a female carrier and produes an affected feale offspring
The x-linked dominant rule is what affected male produces all affected female offspring and no affected male offspring
Approximately half the offspring of an affected female is ____ affected regardless of their sex
The line between a male and female on a pedigree indicate what?? sexual union
What do the circles and squares beneath the line on a pdigree mean? offspring
What is Mendel's law of independent assortment alleles for different traits are distrubted to gametes independently of one another
How can Mendel's law of independent assortment be illustrated? using dihybrid crosses
What is a dihybrid cross two trait crosses of hybrid (TtYy x TtYy)
In a dihybrid cross each parent can produce what? 4 types of gametes
What type of cross did mendel use to show the law of dominance? p generation cross where all plants came out tall
What did mendel use to illustrate the law of segregation F1 hyubrid cross Tt x Tt where 75% are tall and 25% are short
What did mendel use to illustrate the law of independent assortment? dihybrid crosses 9:3:3:1
The offspring from corssing tru-bred parents with different traits are called what? hybrid
All of the F1 plants of Mende's peas were tall Why the law of dominace
What are the building blocks of RNA and DNA nucleotides
How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes of RrYy 2-RY and rY
What happens to alleles during segregation? they separate from each other
Whe performing the scientific method, logical inferences, prior knowledge an imaginative guessea re all used to create what? hypothesis
a well tested explanation tha unifies a broad range of observations in called what? theory
Sex-linked genes are located on which sex chromosome? x
Organisms with two identical alleles are called what? homozygous
What is the probablitity of a male child during fertilization 50%
If you cross two heterozygous parents what is the expected genotypic ration of the offspring 1:2:1
What word represents the physical appearance? phenotype
what is the diffusion of water called? osmosis
Which typ of cell containes a nucleus eukaryotic
normal wings are dominant to curved. Two normal winged flies mate but 1/4 of their offspring have curved wings. What are the pare's genotypes heterozygous for both
Given the following genotype, AABb, identify the possible gamete combination AB, Ab, Ab, AB
What is the sex chromosome combination of a female? XX
??hungtington's disease is caused by a dominant allele. Will an individual with the genotype of hh have huntington's disease? no, cuuased by dominant
In Mendel's pea plant, what is the phenotype of individuals with the following genotypes Tt or TT tall
If you cross RrYy x RRYy, how many different phenotypes will result 2
Mendel used dihybrid crsosses to prove which law independent assortment
which blood type is the universal donor? o
Name on multiple allele trait blood type
tall is dominant over shrot. If you cross two heterozygotes, what percent will be tall? 75%
What does photosynthesis produce oxygen and glucose
What does meiosis produce? 4 different haploid gametes
if an organisms' diploid number is 10, what is its haploid number? 5
Which organelle is located in plant cells but not animal cells? chloroplast
Identify the two genotypes that result in B blood type.
Which organelle is used to build protins? ribosomes
Created by: 3j0mk1