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Heredity

Basic, Beyond Basic and Lab Terms

TermDefinition
allele one of two or more forms of a gene (ex:W or w for widow's peak trait) [B]
fertilization the joining of a haploid egg cell and a haploid (1n) sperm cell to form a diploid (2n) zygote [B]
meiosis followed by cytokinesis, this double division of the nucleus produces four unique haploid (1n) egg or sperm cells (only 1 egg cell is viable) [B]
dominant and recessive alleles 1) expressed if at least one allele is present 2) only expressed when a dominant allele is not present [B]
sex chromosome in humans, these chromosomes are X and Y. XX produces females and XY produces males [B]
sex-linked traits typically found on X chromosomes (ex:color blindness), to express the trait, men need one copy of the gene (ex:XcY) and females need two copies (ex:XcXc) [B]
homozygous and heterozygous 1) a genotype with two identical alleles (ex: WW or ww) 2) a genotype with two different alleles (ex:Ww) [B]
gene a section of DNA in a chromosome that codes for a protein (or polypeptide) [B]
gamete egg or sperm cells (haploid/1n) [B]
genome The complete complement of an organism's genes; an organism's genetic material [BB]
sexual reproduction and genetic variation variation is increased by reproduction with two parents by (1) crossing-over during meiosis, (2) random assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, and (3) many possible combinations of gametes during fertilization [BB]
polyploidy primarily in plants, this is the case in which an organism has one or more duplicate sets of chromosomes, 3 sets (3n) can result in sterility (seedless watermelons) and 4 sets (4n) can result in enlarged fruit (strawberries) [BB]
monosomy and trisomy 1) one missing chromosome or 2) one extra chromosomes as a result of nondisjunction often result in human disorders including Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and XO (Turner syndrome) [BB]
rules of probability addition rule: or = + multiplication rule: and = X [BB]
multiple gene many traits are the product of more than one gene [BB]
nonnuclear inheritance chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA (not found in the nucleus) are randomly assorted to gametes and do not follow simple Mendelian rules -- mitochondria is transmitted by the egg in animals [BB]
segregation (chromosomal) Mendel's first law, stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and then randomly re-form pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization [BB]
independent assortment Mendel's second law, stating that each allele pair segregates independently during gamete formation [BB]
nondisjunction An accident of meiosis or mitosis, in which both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or both sister chromatids fail to move apart properly (can result in monosomy or trisomy) [BB]
homologous chromosomes chromosome pairs of the same length, one inherited from each parent (each duplicated form is made up of two sister chromatids) [Lab: Mitosis/Meiosis]
crossing-over the exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis (pairing of homologous chromosomes) of prophase I of meiosis [Lab: Mitosis/Meiosis]
Created by: cfigueiredo