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Basic, Beyond Basic and Lab Terms

chromosome made up of DNA wrapped around proteins (human body cells have 46 chromosomes (diploid/2n) located in the nucleus) [B]
allele one of two or more forms of a gene (ex:W or w for widow's peak trait) [B]
fertilization the joining of a haploid egg cell and a haploid (1n) sperm cell to form a diploid (2n) zygote [B]
mitosis followed by cytokinesis, this division of the nucleus produces two identical, diploid (2n) body cells [B]
meiosis followed by cytokinesis, this double division of the nucleus produces four unique haploid (1n) egg or sperm cells (only 1 egg cell is viable) [B]
DNA replication the process of producing two identical copies of one original DNA molecule [B]
dominant and recessive alleles 1) expressed if at least one allele is present 2) only expressed when a dominant allele is not present [B]
sex chromosome in humans, these chromosomes are X and Y. XX produces females and XY produces males [B]
sex-linked traits typically found on X chromosomes (ex:color blindness), to express the trait, men need one copy of the gene (ex:XcY) and females need two copies (ex:XcXc) [B]
homozygous and heterozygous 1) a genotype with two identical alleles (ex: WW or ww) 2) a genotype with two different alleles (ex:Ww) [B]
gene a section of DNA in a chromosome that codes for a protein (or polypeptide) [B]
gamete egg or sperm cells (haploid/1n) [B]
cell cycle a complex set of stages that is highly regulated with checkpoints that determine when the cell will grow, synthesize DNA and replicate [BB]
G2 checkpoint the checkpoint that must be passed before a cell enters mitosis and is triggered by the joining of cyclin and cdk to form MPF [BB]
genome The complete complement of an organism's genes; an organism's genetic material [BB]
sexual reproduction and genetic variation variation is increased by reproduction with two parents by (1) crossing-over during meiosis, (2) random assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, and (3) many possible combinations of gametes during fertilization [BB]
polyploidy primarily in plants, this is the case in which an organism has one or more duplicate sets of chromosomes, 3 sets (3n) can result in sterility (seedless watermelons) and 4 sets (4n) can result in enlarged fruit (strawberries) [BB]
monosomy and trisomy 1) one missing chromosome or 2) one extra chromosomes as a result of nondisjunction often result in human disorders including Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and XO (Turner syndrome) [BB]
rules of probability addition rule: or = + multiplication rule: and = X [BB]
multiple gene many traits are the product of more than one gene [BB]
nonnuclear inheritance chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA (not found in the nucleus) are randomly assorted to gametes and do not follow simple Mendelian rules -- mitochondria is transmitted by the egg in animals [BB]
segregation (chromosomal) Mendel's first law, stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and then randomly re-form pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization [BB]
independent assortment Mendel's second law, stating that each allele pair segregates independently during gamete formation [BB]
nondisjunction An accident of meiosis or mitosis, in which both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or both sister chromatids fail to move apart properly (can result in monosomy or trisomy) [BB]
interphase this part of the cell cycle consists of three phases: growth, synthesis of DNA and preparation for mitosis -- accounts for 90% of the time of each cell cycle [Lab: Mitosis/Meiosis]
prophase The first stage of mitosis, during which duplicated chromosomes condense and the mitotic spindle forms and begins moving the chromosomes toward the center of the cell made possible by the breakdown of the nuclear envelope [Lab: Mitosis/Meiosis]
metaphase The second stage of mitosis, during which the cell's duplicated chromosomes line up at cell's equator [Lab: Mitosis/Meiosis]
anaphase The third stage of mitosis, during which sister chromotids separate from each other [Lab: Mitosis/Meiosis]
telophase The fourth and final stage of mitosis, during which daughter nuclei form at the two poles of a cell -- usually occurs together with cytokinesis [Lab: Mitosis/Meiosis]
cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis (or four daughter cells at the end of meiosis) [Lab: Mitosis/Meiosis]
homologous chromosomes chromosome pairs of the same length, one inherited from each parent (each duplicated form is made up of two sister chromatids) [Lab: Mitosis/Meiosis]
crossing-over the exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis (pairing of homologous chromosomes) of prophase I of meiosis [Lab: Mitosis/Meiosis]
Created by: cfigueiredo