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Biology 10.2

Biology-Circulation and Respiration Chapter 10 Section 2

QuestionAnswer
The seventeenth-century Englishman who was the first to describe the circulation of the blood accurately, called the heart "the sovereign of the body" William Harvery
The heart is encased within a tough white sac called the _____, which helps support and protect the heart. pericardium
Internally, the main features (of the heart) are its four hollow spaces or ____. chambers
The two pumping mechanism of the heart consists of two thin-walled upper chambers, called ______, and two thick-walled lower chambers called the ventricles. atria
The two pumping mechanism of the heart consists of two thin-walled upper chambers, called atria, and two thick-walled lower chambers called the ventricles. ventricles
A thick vertical wall called the _____ divides the left atrium and left ventricle from the right atrium and right ventricle. septum
The walls of the heart's four chambers can be divided into three layers. The most important layer is the _____, which contains the muscles of the heart. myocardium
Lining the interior of the heart's chambers is the _______, which provides a smooth coating for the heart's interior. endocardium
The outside of the heart is coated with a layer of slippery tissue called the _______, which allows the heart to move easily within the pericardial sac as it beats. epicardium
Blood is prevented from flowing in the wrong direction by means of four _____ that are strategically located in the heart. valves
These two valves -the bisuspid valve and the tricuspids valve- are known as the _-_ _______ because they allow blood to flow from each atrium into corresponding ventricle. A-V valves
The ____ ____ (mintral valve) connects the left atrium and left ventricle, while the tricuspid valve connects the right atrium and right ventricle. bicuspid valve
The bicuspid valve (mintral valve) connects the left atrium and left ventricle, while the ______ _____ connects the right atrium and right ventricle. tricuspid valve
Two valves in the heart allow blood to flow to the body from ventricles but prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles from the body. These are known as ____ _____ because each of their three cusps is shaped somewhat like the crescent moon. semilunar valves
The ______ ________ ________ allows blood to exit the left ventricle and enter the aorta (which carries blood to the bod tissues), while the pulmonary semilunar valve allows blood to exit the right ventricle and enter the pulmonary arteries. aortic semiluna valve
The aortic semiluna valve allows blood to exit the left ventricle and enter the aorta (which carries blood to the bod tissues), while the _________ ________ ________ allows blood to exit the right ventricle and enter the pulmonary arteries. pulmonary semilunar valve
This deoxygenated blood returns to the heart through the _______ ______, the body's largest veins. venae cavae
The _____ _____ _________ returns blood from the upper part of the body, and the inferior vena cava returns blood from the lower part of the body. superior vena cava
The superior vena cava returns blood from the upper part of the body, and the ______ _____ _____ returns blood from the lower part of the body. inferior vena cava
The right ventricle is inflated w/ blood, it contracts,the pressure of blood shuts the tricuspid valve and forces open pulmonary semilunar valve,allowing blood to pass through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the ___ ____ it brings blood to the lungs pulmonary artery
This ______ _____ travels back to the heart from the lungs through four pulmonary veins-2 for each lung- and enters the left atrium and left ventricle, inflating and enters the left atrium and left ventricle, inflating them. oxygenated blood
This _oxygenated blood travels back to the heart from the lungs through four _____ _______-2 for each lung- and enters the left atrium and left ventricle, inflating and enters the left atrium and left ventricle, inflating them. pulmonary veins
The left ventricle then contracts, closing the bicuspid valve and forcing blood through the aortic semilunar valve into the _____, the body's largest artery. aorta
Blood enters this network by means of the 2 ______ ______, which branch from the base of the aorta (the largest artery that exits the left ventricle). coronary arteries
After supplying the cardiac muscle tissues with fuel and oxygen, blood leaves these tissues with fuel and oxygen, blood leaves these tissues through blood vessels known as ____ ____. cardiac veins
The person is said to have suffered a ____ ____, a type of heart failure cause by a blockage of blood flow to the heart muscles. heart attack
A heart attack is not the only type of heart failure that may occur. A condition called ______ ______ occurs when the heart ceases to beat and instead twitches randomly. ventricular fibrillation
Many heart repairs require the aid of a _____-_____ ______ because the heart must be stopped and often opened. heart-lung machine
The simplest type of coronary artery repair is ______, a procedure which does not involve opening the chest. angioplasty
Sometimes the clogs in the coronary arteries are too extensive to be helped by angioplasty and a _____ _____ _____ must be performed.Which a large vein is removed form the patient's leg and cut into pieces and sewn into different places coronary artery bypass
In _____-______ _______, the surgeon removes a faulty heart valve and replaces it with an artificial valve (made of stainless steel or plastic) or with a valves from a pig's heart. valve-replacement surgery
Sometimes the heart is damaged beyond repair, and a _______ _______ becomes necessary. The damaged heart may be replaced with a donor heart from a fatal-accident victim. heart transplant
The contracting and pumping phase of the heart action is called _______. systole
The relaxing and filling phase is known as _______. diastole
The cardiac cycle is perceived as a ______. heatbeat
An abnormal rushing or blowing sound produced by the valve damage is called a _______ ________. heart murmur
Describe a cardiac muscle cell. They are short, branched, and contain only one nucleus per cell.
How many nucleus does a cardiac muscle cell contain? One.
In addition, cardiac muscle cells lack what systems. The fuel and oxygen storage systems
Why do cardiac muscle cells lack the fuel and oxygen storage systems to make room for what? More mitochondria "power plants."
Cardiac muscle diggers from the skeletal muscle in that it is _____-______. Although cardiac muscles are stimulated to beat by the heart's built-in pacemaker, cardiac muscle cells will beat even if separated form the heart. self-exciting
The beating of the heart is regulated by a system of special heart cells known as the ______ _______ _________. cardiac conduction system
The master control unit of the heart is the _____ _______. sinoatrial node
What is the sinoatrial node also known as? S-A node.
What is the S-A node commonly referred to? The pacemaker of the heart.
A doctor specializing in the heart and its disorders. cardiologist
A cardiologist can study the electrical activity of the heart by means of an _________. electrocardiogram
Created by: Teens