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7th Mid Rvw CH 14-15

7th Grade Midterm Review Cells and Heredity Terms 2014-2015

cell wall The stiff outer layer of PLANT cells that protects and supports the cell.
cell membrane This structure surrounds and protects the cell and controls what enters it and leaves it.
nucleus This organelle directs all of the cell’s activities; It is the control center of the cell.
mitochondria Rod-shaped structures called the “powerhouse” of the cell because they produce most of the cell’s energy.
chloroplast GREEN structures in plant cells that capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food.
chlorophyll Green PIGMENT located inside chloroplasts that captures energy from sunlight during photosynthesis
vacuole Storage for food and water. Plants wilt when there is not enough water stored here.
lysosome Small structures that break down food and recycle old cell parts.
Cell The basic unit of structure and function in living things.
Cell Theory 1. All living things are made of cells. 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. 3. All cells come from other cells.
Selectively Permeable A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot.
Diffusion The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Osmosis The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
Passive Transport the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy. Materials move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
Active Transport The movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy. Molecules are moving from areas of low concentration to high concentration. Against the concentration gradient.
Photosynthesis The process by which plants and some other organisms capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make food.
respiration The process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain.
Trait physical characteristics controlled by a gene
purebred/homozygous Having two identical alleles for a trait. TT or tt
genes factors that control traits
dominant trait when it is present, the form of the trait that it controls is always present.
recessive trait This trait is only shown when there are two copies of the allele
hybrid/heterozygous Having two different alleles for a trait. Tt
Punnett Square A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Phenotype An organism's physical appearance or visible trait
Genotype An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combination, "genetic code"
Created by: bphelan