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Animals & Plants

Basic, Beyond Basic and Lab Terms

TermDefinition
negative feedback mechanism maintains dynamic homeostasis (ex: body temperature) by returning the changing condition back to its target set point [B]
nervous system the system that detects external and internal signals, processes information and responds (message system) [B]
nerve cell basic cell of the nervous system is made eup of a cell body, axon and dendrites (also called a neuron) [B]
central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system 1) brain and spinal cord 2) interacting nerve cells [B]
immune system the system in plants and animals that include a variety of chemical defenses against disease [B]
B cells type of lymphocytic white blood cell that produce antibodies to help fight extracellular pathogens such as bacteria (part of the specific, humoral response) [B]
antibodies Y-shaped proteins produced by B cells that bind to antigens of pathogens, targeting them for destruction [B]
cytotoxic (killer) T cells type of lymphocytic white blood cell that fights cancer cells and intracellular pathogens such as viruses (part of the specific, cell mediated response) [B]
digestive system (mammal) the system of organs that take in food, extract nutrients and release solid waste (includes mouth, stomach, and intestines) [B]
excretory system (mammal) the system that filters and releases liquid nitrogenous waste (includes kidney and bladder) [B]
respiratory system (mammal) the system that takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide (works with the circulatory system) (include lungs) [B]
circulatory system (mammal) the system that distributes oxygen and collects carbon dioxide from the body (works with the respiratory system) (includes heart, veins and arteries) [B]
nonspecific immune response the immune response found in all living organisms that lack pathogen-specific defense. [BB]
specific immune response the pathogen-specific immune response found only in vertebrates (includes the humoral and cell-mediated response) [BB]
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) a virus that attacks helper T cells (which trigger B cells) and can develop into AIDS [BB]
positive feedback mechanism amplifies processes and moves the changing condition farther away from the initial set-point (ex: ripening of fruit) [BB]
phototropism growth of a plant shoot toward (or away from) light [BB]
photoperiodism physiological response to day length, such as flowering in plants [BB]
circadian rhythms physiological cycle of about 24 hours, present in all eukaryotic organisms, that persists even in the absence of external cues -- travel can result in jet lag [BB]
endotherm animal that uses metabolic energy to maintain a constant body temperature, such as a bird or mammal [BB]
ectotherm animal such as a reptile, fish, or amphibian, that must use environmental energy and behavioral adaptations to regulate its body temperature [BB]
schwann cells cells that form the myelin sheath are separated by gaps over which the impulse travels along the neuron [BB]
Na+/K+ pump (sodium-potassium pump) an example of active transport (two-way 3:2 transport) works to maintain membrane potential in a nerve cell [BB]
neurotransmitter a chemical messenger (bridge) released from the axon terminal of a neuron at a synapse (space between neurons) allowing the impulse to travel to the next neuron resulting in a stimulatory or inhibitory response [BB]
transpiration evaporative loss of water from a plant (water moves from roots to leaves and evaporates at the stomata) [Lab: Transpiration]
stomata microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows the intake of carbon dioxide and the loss of oxygen and water [Lab: Transpiration]
guard cells specialized epidermal plant cells surrounding the stomata which can close to limit water loss [Lab: Transpiration]
negative pressure a tension that causes water to be pulled upwards through an open system (plant xylem) [Lab: Transpiration]
water potential physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure (higher water potential = water will leave area) [Lab: Transpiration]
leaf surface area can be determined by tracing a leaf on graph paper and can be used to compare the transpiration rate of different size leaves [Lab: Transpiration]
xylem tube-shaped, nonliving portion of the vascular system in plants that carries water from the roots to the rest of the plant [Lab: Transpiration]
transpiration rate (type of environment) the rate is high in sunny/windy environments and low in humid environments [Lab: Transpiration]
Created by: cfigueiredo