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Basic, Beyond Basic and Lab Terms

DNA replication the process of producing two identical copies of one original DNA molecule
mitosis followed by cytokinesis, this division of the nucleus produces two identical, diploid (2n) body cells
chromosome made up of DNA wrapped around proteins (human body cells have 46 (diploid/2n) located in the nucleus)
reception the first stage of cell communication in which a chemical messenger (a ligand) attaches to a specific receptor protein, causing the receptor protein to change shape
transduction the second stage of cell communication triggered by the shape change in the receptor protein and passed on through signal cascades, second messengers and/or protein modifications
response the third and final stage of cell communication in which a cell responds to the original message
hormones one of many types of circulating chemical signals in all multicellular organisms that travel in body fluids and interact with target cells
ligand a molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule
receptor protein on or in a cell, a specific protein molecule whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger, such as a hormone
second messenger a small, nonprotein molecule or ion, such as cyclic AMP (cAMP) , that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein
cell cycle a complex set of stages with checkpoints that regulates growth, DNA synthesis and duplication
G2 checkpoint must be passed before a cell enters mitosis and is triggered by the joining of cyclin and cdk to form MPF
karyotype the result of method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type
cancer a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body
cyclin a regulatory protein in cells whose concentration fluctuates cyclically (binds with Cdk to form MPF and allow the cell to pass the G2 checkpoint
Cdk a protein kinase that is active only when attached to cyclin, forming MPF to allow the cell to pass the G2 Checkpoint
positive feedback a physiological control mechanism in which a change in some variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change
negative feedback a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
telophase The fourth stage of mitosis: the nucleus divides into two nuclei
metaphase The second stage of mitosis: cell's duplicated chromosomes line up at cell's equator
prophase The first stage of mitosis: duplicated chromosomes condense, mitotic spindle forms/begins moving the chromosomes toward the center of the cell made possible by the breakdown of the nuclear envelope
cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm to form separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis or meiosis
interphase cell cycle section including growth, synthesis of DNA and mitosis prep -- 90% of cell cycle time
anaphase The third stage of mitosis: sister chromatids separate from each other
onion root tip a rapidly growing part of the onion and thus many cells will be in different stages of mitosis
Created by: cfigueiredo
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