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Ch.15/16 Evolution

Ch. 15/16 Evolution Review (Adv. Bio.)

Process that results in adaptation of a population to the biotic and abiotic environments... Natural selection
The living factors within the environment... Biotic
The nonliving factors within the environment... Abiotic
Type of selection occurs when an extreme phenotype is favored which may occur when a population is adapting to a changing environment... Directional selection
Type of selection that occurs when an intermediate phenotype is favored, because the average individual is well adapted to its environment... Stabilizing selection
Selection when two or more extreme phenotypes are favored over any intermediate type.. Disruptive selection
Ability to reproduce surviving offspring... Fitness
Typically, mutations are immediately expressed and tested by the environment bu the simplest organisms... Prokaryotes
All members of a single species occupying a particular area at the same time, reproducing with one another... Population
Pertains to small, measurable evolutionary changes within a population from generation to generation... Microevolution
The ___ of alleles during sexual reproduction can result in a range of phenotypes among the members of a population... Reshuffling
The study of ___ focuses on that fact that various alleles at all the gene loci in all individuals make up the gene pool of the population and uses allelic and phenotypic frequencies to determine the extent to which a population has changed over time... Population genetics
Allelic frequencies of one gene pool appear to remain at equilibrium from one generation to the next was recognized in 1908 by... Hardy and Weinberg
Scientists see an increased in the frequency of a dark phenotype due to pollution of the natural environment... Industrial melanism
Any condition which deviates from the list of conditions for allelic equilibrium cause ___, Evolutionary change
Permanent genetic changes.. Mutations
Movement of alleles among populations by migration of breeding individuals... Gene flow
When individuals select mates and pair by chance and not according to their genotypes or phenotypes... Random mating
Changes in the allele frequencies of a gene pool due to chance... Genetic drift
Describes large changes that occur over a very long period of time... Macroevolution
Splitting of one species into two or more new species which involves gene pool changes... Speciation
Offers a testable way to define a species that does not depend on appearance, as most other methods do... Biological species concept
Many new species evolve from a single ancestral species... Adaptative radiation
Mechanisms which prevent reproductive attempts and make it unlikely that fertilization will be successful if mating is attempted... Prezygotic mechanisms
Transitional links are least likely to be found if evolution proceeds according to the ___ model. Punctuated equilibrium
Age of human civilization... Holocene period
All major groups of animals evolved during this period... Cambrian
Dinosaurs flourish during this period... Jurassic
Existed alone for some 2 billion years... Prokaryotes
Famous rock formation in the Canadian Rockies... Burgess shale
Most fossils are remains of __ because they do not decay Hard parts
New species evolve slowly from an ancestral species... Gradualistic model
Science of discovering and studying the fossil record Paleontology
The greatest mass extinction in earth's life time... The Great Dying
Traces and remains of past life... Fossils
Traces and remains of past life.. Fossils
Allopatric, but not sympatric speciation requires... Geographic isolation
Alters phenotypic frequency only... Natrual selection
Traits that are controlled by more than one pair of alleles... Polygenic
Bacterial resistance is an example of what type of selection? Directional
Swiss starlings lay four to five eggs and have more young survive than those that lay fewer than four eggs or more than five; this is an example of... Stabilizing selection
The difference in color/pattern of the shells of land snails is an example of what type of selection? Disruptive
Equation/conditions which calculate/explain the genotype and allele frequencies of a population... Hardy-Weinberg Principle
Individuals tend to mate with those that have the same phenotype with respect to a certain characteristic... Assortative mating
Prevents a majority of genotypes from participating in the production of the next generation... Bottleneck effect
Rare alleles, or combination of alleles , occur at a higher frequency in a population isolated from the general population... Founder effect
Perhaps the best example of stabilizing selection in humans... Birth weight
The elaborate coloration in the males of some bird species is a form of ___ Sexual selection
The inability of sperm cells to reach the egg, due to a difference in anatomy, is an example of ___ Prezygotic isolation
Hybrid survives but is sterile and cannot reproduce... Postzygotic isolation
Two populations of wild wheat hybridized many years ago. The hybrid is sterile, but chromosome doubling allowed some plants to reproduce and these plants became today's wheat plants. Sympatric speciation
The limited contact between the populations of salamanders in the Central Valley of California, due to mountain range/valley splitting their habitat, is an example of... Allopatric speciation
Each of Darwin's finches has a ___ that is is adapted to gathering and eating a different type of food... Beak
Gives us the major divisions of geological time and contains the evolutionary events that occurred in earth's history... Geological timescale
Theory discussing the moving and shifting of the earth's crust and the role that played in evolution... Plate tectonics
Movement of continents... Continental drift
About 250 mya, all continents were joined into a supercontinent called ___ Pangea
Organism or a group of organisms at a particular level in a classification system... Taxon
Group of related families... Order
Group of related classes... Phylum
Group of related species... Genus
___ is a part of systematics because ideally organisms are classified according to our present understanding of evolutionary relationships... Classification
Branch of biology concerned with identifying, naming and classifying organisms... Taxonomy
Diagram that indicates common ancestors and lines of descent... Phylogenetic tree
Related to each other through common descent... Homologous structures
Acquisition of the same or similar traits in distantly related lines of descent... Convergent evolution
Have same function in different groups but organisms with those structures do not have a recent common ancestor... Analogous structures
Depicts the evolutionary history of a group based on available data... Cladogram
Created by: SavannahElkins