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Unit 3 Vocabulary

Protein Synthesis The creation or process of generating new proteins.
Polar Bodies In females, out of the four gamete cells in meiosis, only one is used. The other three unused eggs are called polar bodies.
Meiosis The formation of gametes. The 46 chromosomes are cut in half to 23. This produces sex cells.
Mitosis The process by which the nucleus of a cell is divided into 2 identical parts. (46 chromosomes)
Nucleolus Can be up to 4 in a nucleus. It is the site of rRNA synthesis, and then it joins with proteins.
Golgi Apparatus Stacks of curved, membrane-bound sacs. It's function is to receive, modify, package, and distribute proteins and lipids coming from the E.R.
Transcription The copying of RNA
Translation The creation of the proteins.
Cilia Project from the surface of the cell. Can range from 1 to thousands per cell.
Prophase Longest phase of Mitosis. The chromatin become condensed and exist as chromosomes. Centrioles separate and spindle fibers form. The nuclear envelope breaks down.
Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm. Cell division is now complete.
Anaphase Centromere that joins sister chromatids split. Chromatids now separate and move to opposite ends of the cell.
Flagella Structure is similar to cilia, but longer. Usually one per cell. In humans, it is only found on sperm cells.
tRNA Transfers amino acids to the ribosomes, to help make the proteins.
mRNA Makes a copy of the instructions.
Ribosomes Where proteins are produced. Free ribosomes are unattached, while some are attached to the E.R.
Gametes A male or female sex cell.
Plasma Membrane The membrane of lipids or proteins that form either the outer edge of the cytoplasm of a cell, or the membrane that encloses a vacuole. Regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
Hypotonic Lower concentration of solutes. (Higher water concentration)
Hypertonic Solution with higher concentration of solutes, and therefore a lower concentration of water.
Isotonic Concentration of solutes and water is equal.
Proteins Chains of Amino Acids. Created in the ribosomes. The code for making proteins is found in DNA.
Created by: BrittD2015