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Cells Review

Cells Practice for Test

What is the cell? "The basic unit that makes up living things."
What are organelles? "Structures that perform specific functions in the cell."
What is the nucleus? "Directs the activities of the cell. It stores a molecule called DNA, which determines an organism's traits."
What is the cell membrane? "Is a thin, flexible covering that surrounds all types of cells. It allows food, water, and gases to enter the cell and wastes to leave."
What is the cell wall? "In plant cells only, is a rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane. The cell wall protects the cell and helps the plant stand upright. Pores in the cell wall allow materials to pass in and out."
What is the cytoplasm? "Between the nucleus and the cell membrane. All of the remaining organelles are located within the cytoplasm. They are suspended there in a thick fluid."
What are ribosomes? "They assemble compounds called proteins. Proteins make up the structural components of cells, and they allow the cell to perform nearly all chemical reactions."
What are lysosomes? "Help the cell break down nutrients and old cell parts. Lysosomes are common in animal cells, but rare in plants."
What are vacuoles? "Are membrane-bound sacs that are filled with fluid. They store water, food, waste, and other substances the cell processes."
What is the golgi apparatus? "Receives proteins, then processes them for "shipment" outside the cell. Is a system of membranes. It modifies and refines proteins, sometimes adding compounds that will protect them from being broken apart."
What is the chloroplast? "Contain pigments that absorb sunlight. They use the energy to make food-a unique process among the organelles! The pigment chlorophyll gives plants their green color."
What is the mitochondria? "Are known as the "power plants" of the cell. Inside them, sugars break apart as they react with oxygen. The process releases carbon dioxide, water, and a lot of energy."
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum? "A system of membranes and tubes. The membranes twist and turn through the cell, creating passages through which materials can pass."
What is smooth ER? "Breaks down toxic substances and controlling the levels of certain chemicals."
What is rough ER? "Secrete lots of proteins."
Created by: 17agordon