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DNA and Chromosomes

Biology I

TermDefinition
Cell Cycle Is the regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells
Mitosis Is the division of the cell nucleus and its contents.
Cytokinesis Is the process that divides the cell cytoplasm.
Chromosomes Is one long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information.
Histones At almost all times during the cell cycle, each of your chromosomes is associated with a group of proteins.
Chromatin At this stage--the "spaghetti" stage-- the loose combination of DNA and proteins.
Chromatid One half of a duplicated chromosome.
Centromere A region of the condensed chromosomes that looks pinched.
Telomeres Which are made of repeating nucleotides that do not form genes.
Prophase Chromatin condenses into tightly coiled chromosomes.
Metaphase The spindle fibers attach to a protein structure on the centromere of each chromosome and align the chromosomes along the cell equator, around the middle of the cell.
Anaphase Sister chromatids separate from each other.
Telophase A complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell.
Somatic cells Also called body cells, make up most of your body tissues and organs.
Gametes Are sex cells-- ova, or eggs, in the female, and the spermatozoa, or sperm cells, in the male.
Homologous Chromosomes Are two chromosomes-- one inherited from the mother, one from the father-- that have the same length and general appearance.
Autosomes Chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism.
Sex chromosomes That directly control the development of sexual characteristics.
Sexual reproduction Involves the fusion of two gametes that results in off-spring that are a genetic mixture of the both parents.
Fertilization The actual fusion of an egg and a sperm cell.
Diploid Means a cell has two copies of each chromosome: one copy from the mother, and one from father.
Haploid Means that a cell only has one copy of each chromosome.
Meiosis Is a form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells.
Gametogenesis Is the production of gametes.
Sperm The male gamete.
Egg The female gamete.
Polar bodies Cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down.
Traits Are distinguishing characteristics that are inherited, such as eye color, leaf shape, and tail length. etc.
Genetics Is the study of biological inheritance patterns and variation in organisms.
Purebred If a lone of plants has self-pollinated for long enough, that line becomes genetically uniform.
Cross In genetics, the mating of two organisms.
Law of segregation Organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent. Organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes. Thus, the two copies of each gene segregate, or separate, during gamete formation.
Bacteriophage Or "phage" for short, takes over a bacterium's genetic machinery and directs it to make more viruses.
Nucleotides The small units, or monomers, that make up DNA
Double helix In which two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder.
Base Pairing Rules Thymine (T) always pairs with Adenine (A), and Cytosine (C) always pair with Guanine (G)
Replication This process by which DNA is copied during the Cell Cycle.
DNA polymerases A group of enzymes that bond together new nucleotides together.
Created by: thurmdev0862