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DNA and Chromosomes

Biology vocab

TermDefinition
Cell Cycle The regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells
Mitosis The division of the cell nucleus and its contents
Cytokinesis is the process that divides the cell cytoplasm
Chromosome One continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information
Histones A group of proteins
Chromatin The loose combination of DNA and proteins
Chromatid One half of a duplicated chromosome
Centromere A region of the condensed chromosome that looks pinched
Telomeres Made of repeating nucleotides that do not form genes
Prophase Chromatin condenses into tighly coiled chromosomes
Metaphasae The spindle fibers attach to a protein structure on the centromere of each chromosome
Somatic Cell Body cells
Gamete Sex cells
Homologous chromosomes Two chromosomes
autosomes Chromosomes that contain genes
sex chromosomes That directly control the development of sexual characteristics
Sexual Reproduction Involves the fusion of two gametes that results in offspring that are a genetic mixture of both pairs
Fertilization The actual fusion of an egg and a sperm
Diploid A cell has two copies of a chromosome
Haploid A cell has one copy of a chromosome
Meiosis A form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells
Gametogenesis The production of gametes
Sperm The male gamete
Egg The female gamete
Polar Bodies Cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down
Bacteriophage Takes over a bacterium`s genetic machinery and directs it to make more viruses
Nucleotide Small units that make up DNA
Double Helix Model in which two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder
Base pair rules T always pairs with A and C always pairs with G
Replication The process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle
DNA polymerases Bond the new nucleotides together
Created by: hosteeli4050