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DNA and chorosomes

5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 6.2, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 vocab

TermDefinition
cell cycle pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division that occurs in a eukaryotic cell.
mitosis process by which a cell divides its nucleus and contents.
cytokinesis process by which the cell cytoplasm divides.
chromosome long, continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory information.
histone protein that organizes chromosomes and around which DNA wraps.
chromatin loose combination of DNA and that is present during interphase.
chromatid one half of a duplicated chromosome.
centromere region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched; where spindle fibers attach during meiosis and mitosis.
somatic cell cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs except gametes.
gamete sex cell; an egg or a sperm cell.
homologous chromosome chromosomes that have the same length, appearance.
autosome chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism.
sex chromosome chromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics.
sexual reproduction process by which two gametes fuse and offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produced.
fertilization fusion of an egg and sperm cell.
diploid cell that has two copies of each chromosome, one from an egg and one from a sperm.
haploid cell that has only one copy of each chromosome.
meiosis form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells; important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction.
gametogenesis process by which gametes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes.
sperm male gamete.
egg female gamete.
polar body haploid cell produced during meiosis in the female of many species; these cells have little more than DNA and eventually disintegrate.
bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria.
nucleotide monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base.
double helix model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder.
base pairing rules rule that describes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA; adenine (A) always bonds with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always bonds with cytosine (C).
replication process by which DNA is copied.
DNA polymerase enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA during replication.
Created by: reedykir1638