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DNA & Chromosomes


Cell Cycle Regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells.
Mitosis The division of the cell nucleus and its contents.
Cytokinesis The process that divides the cell cytoplasm.
Chromosome One long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information.
Histones Each of your chromosomes is associated with a group of proteins.
Chromatin Loose combination of DNA and proteins
Chromatid One half of duplicated chromosomes
Centromere Sister chromatids are held together
Somatic cells Also called body cells, make up most of your body tissues and organs.
Gamates Sex cells- ova, or eggs, in the female, and develop into gametes.
Homologous chromosomes Two chromosomes- one inherited from the mother, one from the father- that have the same length and general appearance.
Autosomes chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism.
Sex chromosomes Directly control the development of sexual characteristics
Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two gametes that results in off-spring that are a genetic mixture of both parents.
fertilization actual fusion of an egg and a sperm cell.
Diploid Means a cell has two copies of each chromosome: one copy from the mother, and one copy from the father.
Haploid Means a cell has only one copy of each chromosome.
Meiosis Form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells.
Gametogenesis Is the production of gametes.
Sperm The male gamete.
Egg The female gamete.
Polar bodies Cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down
Bacteriophage Takes over a bacteriums's genetic machinery and directs it to make more viruses.
Nucleotide Small units, or monomers, that make up DNA
Double helix Model, in which two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder.
Base pairing rules Bases of the two DNA always pair up in the same way.
Replication Process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle.
DNA polymerases Bond the new nucleotides together.
Created by: branhhal0988