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DNA and Chromosomes

Biology

TermDefinition
Cell Cycle The regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells.
Mitosis The division of the cell nucleus and its contents.
Cytokinesis The process that divides the cell cytoplasm.
Chromosome One long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information.
Histones A group of proteins associated with each chromosome.
Chromatin The loose combination of DNA and proteins.
Chromatid One half of a duplicated chromosome.
Centromere A region of the condensed chromosome that looks pinched. Sister chromatids are held together at the centromere.
Telomeres The ends of DNA molecules form structures called telomeres, which are made of repeating nucleotides that do not form genes.
Prophase Chromatin condenses into tightly coiled chromosomes.
Metaphase The spindle fibers attach to a protein structure on the centromere of each chromosome and align the chromosomes along the cell equator, around the middle of the cell.
Anaphase Sister chromatids separate from each other.
Telophase A complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell.
Somatic cells Make up most of your body tissues and organs.
Gametes Sex cells: ova, or eggs, in the female, and spermatozoa, or sperm cells, in the male.
Homologous Chromosomes Two chromosomes that have the same length and general appearance.
Autosomes Chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism. pairs 1 through 22
Sex chromosomes Directly control the development of sexual characteristics.
Sexual Reproduction Involves the fusion of two gametes that results in offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents.
Fertilization The actual fusion of an egg and a sperm cell.
Diploid A cell has two copies of each chromosome.
Haploid A cell has only one copy of each chromosome.
Meiosis A form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells.
Gametogenesis The production of gametes.
Sperm The male gamete. Smaller than egg.
Egg The female gamete.
Polar Bodies Cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down.
Bacteriophage Takes over a bacterium's genetic machinery and directs it to make more viruses.
Nucleotides Monomers that make up DNA.
Double Helix Two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder.
Base pairing rules T always pairs with A and C always pairs with G.
Replication DNA is copied during the cell cycle.
DNA polymerase A group of enzymes that bond the new nucleotides together.
Created by: mannsar1040