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SLS Bio 12 Digestion SM

Absorption The process of absorbing or assimilating substances into cells or across the tissues and organs through diffusion or active transport
Anaerobic Bacteria Bacteria that are capable of living in the absence of oxygen and are able to grow and metabolize
Anus The opening at the lower end of the digestive tract through which solid waste is eliminated from the body.
Appendix a storehouse for good bacteria
Bile bile plays an important role in the intestinal absorption of fats by emulsifying them to make it easier for lipase to break them down
Capillary Any one of the minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules, forming a network in nearly all parts of the body. Their walls act as semipermeable membranes for the interchange of various substances.
Cardiac Sphincter the valve between the end of the esophagus and the stomach
Chemical Digestion the process in which chemicals in the body separate large food molecules into smaller ones so they can pass through the wall of the intestine
Digestive Enzyme Molecules that catalyze the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules.
Digestive Tract Passageway of food that begins at the mouth down to the throat, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and finally to the anus
Duodenum The first or proximal portion of the small intestine, extending from the pylorus to the jejunum
Emulsification The breakdown of fat globules in the duodenum into tiny droplets, which provides a larger surface area on which the enzyme pancreatic lipase can act to digest the fats into fatty acids and glycerol
Epiglottis The thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue that folds over the glottis to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during the act of swallowing
Esophagus The passage between the pharynx and the stomach
Gall Bladder a digestive organ which stores bile (produced in the liver), used in the digestion and absorption of fats in the duodenum
Gastric Juice The acidic digestive fluid secreted by various glands in the stomach lining into the lumen of the stomach, primarily for the partial digestion of food
Hydrochloric Acid (HCL) Solutions of hydrogen chloride gas in water--activates pepsin from its inactive form of pepsinogen
Insulin A polypeptide hormone of the pancreas to regulate the concentration of carbohydrates in blood
Intestinal juice Intestinal juice neutralizes hydrochloric acid coming from the stomach; releases gastrointestinal hormones into the bloodstream; and contains digestive enzymes that facilitate the digestion and absorption of food.
Lacteals referring to the tiny vessels in the villi of the wall of the small intestine through which fatty acids and glycerol are absorbed and released into the lymphatic system
Large Intestine (Colon) also called the colon, it is responsible for forming, storing and expelling waste matter
Lipase A water-soluble enzyme catalyzing hydrolysis of lipids, thereby breaking down fats into glycerol and free fatty acids
Liver Large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity; secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat
Maltase hydrolyzes maltose to glucose,
Microvillus Any of the minute hairlike structures projecting from the exposed surface of the cell in order to increase the surface area for absorption and secretion
Nuclease hydrolyzes nucleic acids (RNA/DNA) into nucleoties
Pancreas It secretes the hormone insulin,and also aids in the digestion of fats and proteins in the small intestine by secreting specific enzymes
Pancreatic Amylase An enzyme in the pancreatic juice that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch
Pancreatic Juice A fluid secreted into the duodenum by the pancreas; important for breaking down starches and proteins and fats
Pepsin digest dietary proteins into simpler, shorter chains of amino acids in the presence in HCL (hydrochloric acid)
Pepsinogen the inactive form of pepsin, activated by HCL
Peptidase Any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into amino acids
Peristalsis The wave like contractions that moves bolus down the esophagus and into the stomach
pH The concentration of H+ ions and OH- ions. More H+ is acidic, more OH- is basic.
Pharynx The passage to the stomach and lungs. Circular muscles form constrictions that help push food to the esophagus and prevent air from being swallowed,
Physical Digestion breakdown of food by physical means. Could be using our knife, or our teeth to masticate the food, also includes peristalsis to help churn the bolus.
Protease any enzyme that catalyses the splitting of interior peptide bonds in a protein
Pyloric Sphincter A ring of smooth muscle fibers around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum.
Rectum The terminal part of the large intestine which opens to the anus.
Salivary Amylase Produced by the salivary glands and starts the initial chemical digestion of starch in the mouth
Salivary Gland Secretes salivary amylase into the mouth
Salivary Juice/Saliva The secretion of the salivary gland. It moistens the oral cavity, prepares food for swallowing, and initiates the process of digestion
Small Intestine Composed of three sections: duodenum, jejunum and ileum.All are involved in the absorption of nutrients.
Sodium Bicarbonate Used to neutralize the chyme coming from the stomach into the small intestine.
Stomach The stomach produces gastric juice (acidic) which serves to breakdown proteins. Prepares the food before it can be transported to the duodenum, the upper part of the small intestine.
Swallowing To take in food to the mouth and propel it towards the stomach through successive muscular action of the esophagus
Trypsin A pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins to form smaller polypeptide units.
Villus The villi work in partnership with the small intestine to dispach nutrients to the bloodstream, these nutrients include amino acids and glucose
Created by: Smorrison