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CBio CH5 Transport

Chapter 5 homeostasis and cell transport

QuestionAnswer
which type of cellular transport occurs without adding ATP? passive transport
which type of cellular transport needs ATP to occur? active transport
what do you call a difference in concentration of molecules across a distance? concentration gradient
in the absence of other influences, diffusion ultimately ends in.... equilibrium
what is equilibrium? when the concentration of molecules is the same throughout the space the molecules occupy
what is osmosis? the passive transport of water
passive transport means molecules move from ____ concentration to ____ concentration. high to low
active transport means molecules move from _____ concentration to _____ concentration. low to high
a hypertonic solution is one that... has a high concentration of solute
a hypotonic solution is one that... has a low concentration of solute
a hypertonic cell in an aqueous solution is one that has a high concentration of solute within the cell compared to the solution outside the cell
a hypotonic cell in an aqueous solution is one that has a low concentration of solute within the cell compared to the solution outside the cell.
a cell in a hypertonic aqueous solution will... shrink
a cell in a hypotonic aqueous solution will... swell and possibly burst
Does a hypertonic cell in an aqueous solution have more or less water inside it than the solution around it? less water
Does a hypotonic cell in an aqueous solution have more or less water inside it than the solution around it? more water
a cell in an isotonic aqueous solution will... stay the same
Does a isotonic cell in an aqueous solution have more or less water inside it than the solution around it? it will have the same amount of water inside of it because it will be at equilibrium.
if the solution outside a cell is hypotonic to the cytosol then the cytosol within the cell must be __________ to that solution hypertonic
if the solution outside a cell is hypertonic to the cytosol then the cytosol within the cell must be _____________ to that solution. hypotonic
unicellular freshwater organisms sometimes live in a hypotonic environment- this means water will flow _____ the organism. into
how doe unicellular freshwater organisms survive in hypotonic environments? they have contractile vacuoles that push out extra water so that they don't swell and burst.
contractile vacuoles are an example of ______ transport passive
when water enters plant cells and fills the vacuole the vacuole then begins to press against the cell wall. what is the name of this type of pressure? turgor
when plants don't receive enough water they begin to wilt. Another term for wilting plants in is... plasmolysis
when animal cells (such as red blood cells) swell and burst this is known as .... cytolysis
What type of transport is facilitated diffusion? passive
what is facilitated diffusion? a process used to move molecules that cannot readily diffuse by themselves. proteins help the molecules across the membrane
what type of molecules cannot diffuse across the membrane by themselves? ones that are too large, ones that have a electrical charge, or ones that are not soluble in lipids
what is the cell membrane made of? a phosopholipid bilayer and proteins
what does it mean to say that the cell membrane is semi permeable? it means that only some molecules can cross the membrane and others cannot
what is a carrier protein? a protein in the membrane that binds to a molecule and "carries" it across the membrane into the cell
what is a channel protein? a protein in the membrane that when activated opens its channel and allows molecules to cross the membrane into the cell
carrier proteins and channel proteins are what type of passive transport? facilitated diffusion
what is a good example of facilitated diffusion? the transport of glucose across the membrane. most cells need glucose to make ATP but glucose to too big to cross the membrane by itself thus it must come through carrier proteins
facilitated diffusion will help molecules move _____ or ____ of the cell - depending on the concentration gradient. into or out of
what type of transport occurs when ion channels transport ions from higher to lower concentrations? passive- facilitated diffusion
some ion channels within the cell membrane are always open others have.... gates that open and close according to stimuli
what are the carrier proteins that serve in active transport called? cell membrane pumps
why are cell membrane pumps a type of active transport? they move molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
when molecules move from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration this is known as moving ____ the concentration gradient. up
when molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration this known as moving ______ the concentration gradient down
sodium potassium pumps pump those ions ____ their concentration gradient up
to function normally some animal cells must have a higher concentration of ______ outside the cell and a higher concentration of ___________ inside the cell. sodium outside and potassium inside
the inside cytosol of most animal cells has a _____ charge. negative
the negative charge is maintained when 3 ____ ions are pumped out and 2 ____ ions are pumped in sodium pumped out and potassium pumped in
what charge to sodium and potassium ions have? positive
how does the sodium potassium pump create an electrical gradient in the cell? it pumps more positive ions out of the cell than what it takes in. this makes the inside of the cell more negative compared to the outside.
Give an example of a type of cell that depends on an electrical gradient to work. nerve cells
what type of transport is endocytosis and exocytosis? active transport- also called "bulk transport"
what is endocytosis? process by which cells ingest fluids/particles
when a cell does endocytosis it ingests fluids/particles by capturing them within a.... vesicle
what is a vesicle? a membrane bound organelle that encloses material
what is pinocytosis? transporting fluids into a cell- "cellular drinking"
what is phagocytosis? transporting solids into a cell "cellular eating"
what is a phagocyte? cells that digest foreign cells like bacteria and viruses.
why is it good that the cells of your immune system do phagocytosis? they eat bacteria/viruses/other foreign invadors
both endocytosis and exocytosis both involve... vesicles
_______ is basically the reverse of endocytosis exocytosis
what is an example of exocytosis? cells releasing waste/toxins that would damage the cell if they were released within the cytosol.
Created by: ruth.baker