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Bio

Unit 06-Meiosis,Basic Genetics

QuestionAnswer
What is the term for when chromosomes exchange genetic material? crossing over
Term for any other cell but a reproductive cell (like a skin cell)? somatic cell
In Mendel’s experiment, what was the F2 generation phenotype ratio? 3 purple:1 white
law of independent assortment
What are the 3 ways to get genetic variation through meiosis? -crossing over -independent assortment -random fertilization
What form of asexual reproduction do prokaryotic organisms do? binary fission
In humans the first 22 pairs are called what? autosomes
In what stage does independent assortment occur? metaphase I
Cross a homozygous dominant with a homozygous recessive. What are the genotypes? 4 Gg
Term for study of heredity? genetics
What are the 3 reasons DNA is important? protein production, directs cell activity, determines traits
Term for a photo of chromosomes in a dividing cell, arranged by size, that can determine chromosomal abnormalities? karyotype
What is the term for meiosis in males? spermatogenesis
In Mendel’s experiment, what was the P generation using flower color? truebreeds of purple and white
Term for when you have two identical alleles for a gene? give an example in letter form. homozygous – TT or tt
Cross a heterozygous with a heterozygous. What are the genotypes? (use G/g) GG:2Gg:gg
A reproductive cell is haploid or diploid? haploid
What are chromosomes/chromatin composed of? DNA and protein
What type of cell, and how many cells, do we get after telephase I? 2 cells, haploid
What are the two most important purposes of the process of meiosis? -to half the number of chromosomes -to create genetic variation
Term for a trait that hides another trait? give an example in letter form. dominant - T
Term for passing of traits from parents to offspring? heredity
What are the 3 forms of asexual reproduction? -binary fission -fragmentation -budding
What is the term for when the two chromosomes (a pair) are close together? tetrad
Term for segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein? gene
Term for a set of alleles? genotype
In Mendel’s experiment, what was the F1 generation phenotype? all purple
In what stage in meiosis do sister chromatids line up along the equator? metaphase II
If a human has an XX for their sex chromosomes, are they male or female? female
A somatic cell is haploid or diploid? diploid
What is the term for meiosis in females? oogenesis
What is main disadvantage of asexual reproduction? no genetic variation
Term for when you have two different alleles for a gene? give an example in letter form. heterozygous Tt
Term for different versions of a gene (like purple and white flower color) allele
How many pairs of homologous chromosomes do humans have? 23 pairs (46 chromosomes)
In what stage does the tetrads line up in the middle? metaphase I
What type of cell, and how many cells, do we get after telephase II? 4 cells, haploid
If a human has an XY for their sex chromosomes, are they male or female? male
Name 3 reasons why Mendel used pea plants for genetic study? -traits are observable -can self fertilize -small, grows quickly
Term for the physical appearance? phenotype
What is a general term for a reproductive cell? gamete
In what stage does crossing over occur? prophase I
In what stage do the tetrads move apart to opposite poles? anaphase I
In humans the 23rd pair is called what? sex chromosomes
Term for a trait that is hidden? give an example in letter form. recessive – t
In a dihybrid cross: B=black/b=brown, T=trotter/t=pacer If parent 1 is hetero black and a pacer: If parent 2 is brown and a hetero trotter: Give the 2 parent genotypes: parent 1:Bbtt parent 2:bbTt
Same cross: In a dihybrid cross: B=black/b=brown, T=trotter/t=pacer If parent 1 is hetero black and a pacer: If parent 2 is brown and a hetero trotter: Determine the parent genotypes. Then determine the gametes for both? Then determine the phenotypes? parent 1:Bbtt parent 2:bbTt gamete: Bt, Bt, bt, bt gamete: bT, bt, bT, bt phenotypes: 4 for each type
Created by: thompsondk