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Ch 6 Vocab

BIOLOGY

TermDefinition
somatic cell body cells that make up most of your body tissues and organs
gametes sex cells, ova, or eggs, in the female, and spermatozoa, or sperm cells, in the male
homologous chromosomes two chromosomes, one inherited from the mother and one from the father, that have the same length and general appearance
atuosomes chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism
sex chromosomes chromosomes that directly control the development of sexual characteristics
sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two gametes, resulting in offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents
fertilization actual fusion of an egg and a sperm cell
haploid a cell has only one copy of each chromosome
meiosis a form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells
gametogenesis the production of gametes
sperm the male game that is much smaller than the egg
egg the female game that is much bigger than the sperm
polar bodies cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down
traits distinguishing characteristics that are inherited
genetics the study of biological inheritance patterns and variation in organisms
purebred gentically uniform, or a line of plants that have self-pollinated for long enough
cross the mating of two organisms
law of segregation two of Mendel's three conclusions or Mendel's first law
gene a piece of DNA that provides a set of instructions to a cell to make a certain protein
allele any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus
homozygous descrbies two of the same alleles at a specific locus
heterozygous describes two different alleles at a specific locus
genome all of an organism's genetic material
genotype typically refers to the genetic makeup of a specific set of genes
phenotype the physical characteristics, or traits, of an individual organism
dominant allele the allele that is expressed when two different alleles ro two dominant alleles are present
recessive allele the allele that is expressed only when two copies are present
punnett square a grid system for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross
monohybrid corsses crosses that examine the inheritance of only one specific trait
testcross a cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with the recessive phenotype
dihybrid crosses crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits
law of independent assortment Mendel's second law of genetics that states that allele pairs separate independently of each other during gamete formation, or meisosis
probability the likelihood that a particular event will happen
crossing over the exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis1
genetic linkage genes located close together ted to be inherited together