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Tobira Ch1 文法

{~で/から}できる to be made of/from/out of.
{~で/から}できる, で vs から から indicates that the material(s) from which something is made is not immediately obvious.
{~で/から}できる, further elaboration できる is used in generic statements while できている is used when describing something specific.
~でできる, 英訳(えいやく, English translation be made of; be made out of
~からできる, 英訳(えいやく, English translation be made from
{~で/から}できる, 文型 (sentence pattern) N{~で/から}{できる/ できている}
{~で/から}できる, 本文1 にほんの国土(こくど)は、~四つの大きい島と6000以上(いじょう)の小さい島でできています。
{~で/から}できる, 例文1 チーズやヨーグルトは牛にゅうからできます。
{~で/から}できる, 例文2 プラスチックは石油(せきゆ, petroleum)からできる。
{~で/から}できる, 例文3 この皿はプラスチックで、そして、このカップは紙でできている。
{~で/から}できる, 例文4 ワインはブドウ(grapes)からできますが、お酒はお米(こめ, rice)からできます。
{~で/から}できる, 例文5 日本には木でできた家が多いが、この国の家はたいてい石(いし, stone)でできている。
Adjective-stem + さ The suffix さ is attached to the stem of an i-adjective or a na-adjective to form a noun.
Adjective-stem +さ, 英訳(えいやく, english translation) -ness; -ty
Adjective-stem +さ, 文型 (sentence pattern) {A-stem/Ana} + さ:ひろい ->ひろさ; さむい->さむさ; 元気き->元気さ;便利->便利さ(Exception: いい->よさ)
Adjective-stem + さ, 本文1 全体の大きさは、アメリカの25分の1、オーストラリアの21分の1ぐらいで、~
Adjective-stem + さ, conjugation exception いい → よさ
~は~で{有名だ/知られている} Either a noun or a sentence (S + こと) occurs before で to state what X is famous for or the reason that X is famous.
XはYで{有名だ/知られている}, 英訳 X is known for Y; X is know because Y
XはYで{有名だ/知られている}, 文型 1. ~はNounで{有名だ/知られている}2. ~はSentence ことで{有名だ/知られている}
Verb non-pastこと{が/も}ある Used when something occurs (or someone does something) occasionally.
Verb non-pastこと{が/も}ある, も Implies that something else may also occur.
Verb non-pastこと{が/も}ある, note Different from V-plain.past ことがある.
Verb non-pastこと{が/も}ある, 英訳 There are times when ~ ; sometimes
Verb non-pastこと{が/も}ある, 文型 V-plain.non-pastこと{が/も}ある
{Noun1/Question-word ~ か/~かどうか}はNoun2に{よって違う/よる} Indicates that something differs depending on the situation, location, time, etc.
~によって違う differ depending on ~
による depend on ~
{Noun1/Question-word ~ か/~かどうか}はNoun2に{よって違う/よる}, 文 {QW ~ か/~かどうか/Noun2}はNoun2に{よって違う/よる}
Verb-masu stem始める auxiliary verb meaning “begin to Verb.”
Verb-masu stem始める, 英訳 begin to; begin Verb-ing
~はSentenceと言われている Introduces something commonly said about something or someone.
~はSentenceと言われている, 英訳 ~ is said to be ~ ; It is said that ~
~はSentenceと言われている, 文型 ~はSentence-plainと言われている
~とか(~とか) Lists examples non-exhaustively. Similar to や for nouns only. However, とか can also follow verb phrases (sentences). Can be one or more examples.
~とか(~とか), usage notes for とか lists of nouns two or larger, the second とか can be omitted before a particle (and only before a particle). (Also, や does not follow a とか construction) とか is never omitted for verb phrase lists.
~とか(~とか), 英訳 things/places/etc. like ~; and; or
~とか(~とか), 文型 a. Noun1 と Noun2 (とか), b. Sentence1とかSentence2とか{する/できる}
~とか(~とか), formality informal
~というのは{Nounのこと/Nounということ/Sentenceということ/Sentenceという意味}だ Provides the meaning or definition of a word or phrase.
~というのは{Nounのこと/Nounということ/Sentenceということ/Sentenceという意味}だ, 英訳 X means ~; The meaning of X is ~; What X means is ~
~というのは{Nounのこと/Nounということ/Sentenceということ/Sentenceという意味}だ, 文型 a ~というのは{Nounのこと/Nounということ}だ
~というのは{Nounのこと/Nounということ/Sentenceということ/Sentenceという意味}だ, 文型 b ~というのはSentenceことだ: Type 2a
~というのは{Nounのこと/Nounということ/Sentenceということ/Sentenceという意味}だ, 文型 c ~というのは{Sentenceということ/Sentenceという意味}だ: Type 1
~だけ{でなく(て)/じゃなく(て)}、~も The sentence structures だけでなく、~も, etc. express the idea “not only X, but also Y.”
~だけ{でなく(て)/じゃなく(て)}、~も, particles Particles に, へ, で, と, or から may appear before も.
~だけ{でなく(て)/じゃなく(て)}、~も not only ~, but also ~
~だけ{でなく(て)/じゃなく(て)}、~も, 文型 1. Noun1だけでなく、Noun2(particle)も, 2. Sだけでなく、Noun(particle)も: Type 2c
Noun って Colloquial topic marker. Often appears in questions. Always use は in written language.
Noun って, 英訳 Speaking of ~; As for ~
~って{いう/聞く/書く/etc.} Informal colloquial version of quotation marker と. Commonly occurs with verbs like 言う, 聞く, 書く, and 呼ぶ.
~って{いう/聞く/書く/etc.}, 英訳 (tell, hear, say, etc.) that ~. Noun 1 っていうNoun 2 = Noun 2 called Noun 1.
~って{いう/聞く/書く/etc.}, 文型 1. Sentenceて{いう/聞く/書く}, 2. Nounて{いう/書く/呼ぶ}, 3. Noun 1ていうNoun 2
Created by: ncommons



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