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Biology Unit 4 Vocab

cell basic unit of life
cell membrane a thin flexible barrier surrounding the cell
Nucleus is a large membrane enclosed structure that contains genetic material in form of DNA and controls many of the cells activity
Eukaryotes contains DNA in their nuclei
Prokaryotes do not enclose DNA in a nuclei
Vacuoles and vesicles Stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Lysosomes Break down waste and detoxify poisons to clean up the cell
Cytoskeleton Network of proteins filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement
Centrioles Structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
Ribosomes Can be found in the endoplasmic reticulum, or floating through the cytoplasm, they create proteins by joining amino acids that the cell s need Made in the nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum Series of folded membranes that prepares the proteins for transport to the Golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus Receives proteins from E.R, package them for protection to be sent to other parts of the cell
Chloroplasts -found in plants and algae -use energy from sunlight to make food -contains DNA and can divide on its own
Mitochondria Chemically change food into energy (ATP) Contain DNA and can Divide on its own
Cell Wall -found in plants, algae, fungi, and most bacteria -made of cellulose -help protect and support the cell
Cell Membrane Outer covering protective layer in ALL cells Controls what comes in and out of the cells
Diffusion When particles move to an area that is more concentrated to an area that is less concentrated
Passive Transport the movement of materials across the cell membrane without using energy
Facilitated Diffusion Process of Diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels
Aquaporins Water Channel Proteins
Osmosis diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Isotonic when the concentration of two solutions are the same
Hypertonic when comparing two solutions the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
Hypotonic when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
Osmotic Pressure the pressure that must be applied to osmotic pressure movement across a selectively permeable membrane
Active Transport The movement of materials against a concentration difference
Endocytosis process of taking materials into the cell by means of enfolding, or pockets of the cell membrane
Phagocytosis a type of endocytosis, where extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a vacuole
Exocytosis membrane of the vacuole fuses with the cell membrane to bring material OUT OF the cell
Homeostasis relatively constant internal physical chemical conditions
Unicellular Organisms organisms are single celled living creature that meet all criteria of a living thing
Multicellular Organisms a multiple-celled living creature that meets all criteria of a living thing
Cell basic unit of all forms of life
Tissue a group of similar cells that performs a particular function
Organ group of tissue that work together to perform closely related functions
Organ System a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Created by: vmfrance18