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Genetics Unit

Heredity The passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
Genetics The genetic properties or features of an organism
Dominant trait A trait that will appear in the offspring if one of the parents contributes it
Recessive trait A trait that must be contributed by both parents in order to appear in the offspring
Gene A unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring
Allele One of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Phenotype The set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment
Homozygous A pair of matching alleles
Heterozygous A pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive
Punnet square A diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
Incomplete dominance A genetic situation in which one allele does not completely dominate another allele
Codominance A relationship between two versions of a gene
Polygenic inheritance Multiple variations of a gene
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes
Nucleotide A compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA
Replication The action of copying or reproducing something
RNA Ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA
Transcription The action or process of transcribing something
Translation The process of moving something from one place to another
Mutation The changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA
Created by: Curtis2013