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Unit 5-Reproduction

Types of cellular and organism reproduction; human pregnancy and developmemnt

TermDefinition
asexual reproduction a method of reproduction in which all the genes passed on to the offspring come from a single individual or parent
clone a plant or animal that is grown from one or more cells of its parent and that has exactly the same genes as its parent.
cloning a technique used to make identical organisms
crossing over an exchange of genetic material between sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes
DNA replication the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule.
diploid a cell or organism that has paired (doubled) chromosomes
differentiation the process that transforms developing cells into specialized cells with different structures and functions
egg a sex cell produced by a female
embryo an organism in the early stages of development
estrogen a hormone (produced by the ovaries) that controls female sexual development and the reproductive process
fertilization the process that combines a sperm cell and an egg cell
fetus the unborn
gametes an egg or sperm cell; a sex cell
genetic variation diversity in gene frequencies; can refer to differences between individuals or to differences between populations. Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic variation
gene expression the result of activated genes
haploid when a cell has only one (single) set of chromosomes
meiosis the process that results in the production of sex cells (sperm and egg)
mitosis the process that divides the cell’s nucleus into two
menstrual cycle the cycle of natural changes that occurs in the female sex organs and hormone quantities as an essential part of making sexual reproduction possible in humans
ovulation when a mature egg is released from the ovary
ovary the organ of the human female reproductive system that produces an egg cell
placenta the organ that enables nutrients and oxygen to pass from the mother’s blood to the fetus
progesterone a hormone associated with sexual development and the reproductive system
recombination the additional mixing of genetic material from a sperm and egg which results in a unique combination of genes
sex cell an egg (female) or a sperm (male)
sexual reproduction a method of reproduction that involves two parents producing offspring that are genetically different from either parent
species A group of organisms that share certain characteristics and can mate with one another
sperm the male sex cell
testes the male reproductive organ
testosterone a hormone associated with male sexual development and reproduction
uterus the organ
zygote the cell that results from the joining of the egg and sperm
Created by: mrcadettescience