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Immunology

Step 1 prep

QuestionAnswer
Gene segments whose random rearrangement play a role in light chain idiotype of the antibody molecule V & J (It's V, D & J for the heavy chain)
Mechanism that allows a B cell to attach either a μ or a δ constant domain to a idiotype, without having undergone class-switching alternative splicing
The enzyme Terminal Deoxyribonucleotidyl Transferase (Tdt) randomly inserts bases at V, D and J junctions. It is seen when B cell in process of rearranging gene segments for heavy chain synthesis. What you DON'T expect to see in a cell with active Tdt? light chains
What are the two types of light chains you can find in an antibody? κ & λ
Interleukin that stimulates production of lymphocytes in BM IL-7
Molecule used as signal transduction complex by T cell receptors CD3
What 4 molecules form the B cell signal transduction complex? Ig-α, Ig-β, CD19 and CD21
Interleukin responsible for mobilization of myeloid cells from BM IL3
Types of MHC class I molecules? HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C
Types of MHC class II surface molecules? HLA-DQ, HLA-DR and HLA-DP
Stage of development of a B-cell that shows CD19, CD20 but no μ chains in cytoplasm Pro-B
What genes must be expressed by lymphocytes to be able to make DNA rearrangements? rag1 and rag2
Stage of development of a B-cell that shows CD19, CD20, μ chains in cytoplasm but no surface Ig and still has Tdt activity Pre-B
Stage of development of a B-cell that shows surface IgM but no IgD Immature B cell
Where do you expect to see T cells with neither CD4 nor CD8 BM (or prethymic in blood)
Where do you expect to find CD4+, CD8+ T cells? Thymic cortex
Where in the lymph node do you find T-cells? Paracortex
What condition predisposes patients to blood-borne pathogens? Splenectomy
What molecules on lymphocyte surface interact with HEV's addressins to enter lymph nodes? L-selectins
This is the first place seen by an Antigen once entering the lymph node Subcapsular sinus
Lymph nodes' cortical follicles are aggregates of what cell type? B- cells
What do you call the structure of the lymph node where clonal division of activated B-cells happens? Germinal center
What cells mainly populate the lymph node medulla? Plasma cells and macrophages
Cells contained in spleen's periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (PALS) T- cells
Areas of the spleen rich in B-cells Follicles and B-cell corona outside T-cell area
What are the two oxygen dependent mechanisms of IC digestion? NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase
What enzyme is deficient in Chronic Granulomatous Disease? What bacteria infect these patients and why? NADPH oxidase - catalase positive (degrade available H2O2 that could be used by myeloperoxidase to form hypochlorite and kill them)
Test used to diagnose CGD and what does a positive test mean? Nitroblue tetrazolium, positive= normal patient (negative=disease)
What is one of the most common mechanisms through which drugs cause immune responses? hapten-carrier immune response where the drug acts as hapten
Genetic immunodeficiency in which immune cells cannot migrate to sites of inflammation LAD deficiency (Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency or CD18 deficiency)
Cytokine responsible for macrophage activation IFNγ
How do Superantigens work? By activating T-cells in the absence of antigen-specific recognition (cross-link TCR with MHC-II molecules in the absence of antigen recognition)
Type of lepra that is most severe and mycobacteria themselves cause damage, it is a TH2 response that is ineffective to stop the illness and is accompanied by hypergammaglobulinemia lepromatous
Type of lepra that is less severe and an TH1 response stimulates granuloma formation which damages tissue tuberculous
Th cell associated with humoral immunity Th2
Type of T cell that produces IL2, IFNγ and TNFβ TH1
Type of immune cell that once activated produce IL1, IL6, TNFα, IFNγ and GM-CSF and are prominent in granulomas Macrophages
Cell that produces IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL13, and TGFβ TH2
Created by: nelagomez