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Biology Chap 5


Cell Cycle Pattern of growth, DNA, replication, and cell division that occurs in a eukaryotic cell.
Mitosis Process by which a cell divides its nucleus and contents.
Cytokinesis Process by which the cell cytoplasm divides.
Chromosome Long, continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory information.
Histone Protein that organizes chromosomes and around which DNA wraps.
Chromatin Loose combination of DNA and proteins that is present during interphase.
Chromatid One half of a duplicated chromosome.
Centromere Region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched; where spindle fibers attach during meiosis and mitosisl
Telomere Repeating nucleotide at the ends of DNA molecules that do not form genes and help prevent the loss of genes.
Prophase First phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centriole migrate to opposite sides of the cell.
Metaphase Second phase of mitosis when spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator.
Anaphase Third phase of mitosis during which chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase Last phase of mitosis when a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membranes start to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and the spindle fibers disassemble.
Growth Factor Broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division.
Apoptosis Programmed cell death.
Cancer Common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division.
Benign Having no dangerous effect on health, especially referring to an abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous.
Malignant Cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organisms health.
Metastasize To spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body.
Carcinogen Substance that produces or promotes the development of cancer.
Asexual Reproduction Process by which offspring are produced from a single parent; does not involve the joining of gametes.
Binary Fission Asexual reproduction in which a cell divides into two equal parts.
Tissue Group of cells that work together to perform a similar function.
Organ Group of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions.
Organ System Two or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions.
Cell Differentiation Process by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature form and function.
Stem Cell Cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated.
Created by: osubuckeye1012