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Cell Respiration

What happens during cellular respiration? Sugar is broken down into carbon dioxide and water. In the process, ATP is made and can be used for cellular work.
What is the formula for cellular respiration? C^6H^12O^6 + 6O^2 -----> 6CO^2 + 6H^2O + ~38 ATP
Where does the breakdown of glucose begin? In the cytoplasm
What are the two kinds of cell respiration? anaerobic (without oxygen) and aerobic (with oxygen)
What is the matrix? the liquidy part of the mitochondria
What is the first step of cell respiration? Glycolysis (splitting of sugar; happens in the cytoplasm) One glucose (C six H twelve O six) is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid, which makes 2 ATP molcules per glucose.
What is the second step of cell respiration? Transition reaction; pyruvic acid is shuttled into the mitchondria, where it is converted into Acetyl CoA for further breakdown
What is the third step of cell respiration? The Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle; occurs in the matrix When oxygen is present, all H+ molecules are taken off Acetyl CoA, 2 by 2, to extract electrons and make ATP until there is no more hydrogen left; all that is left is CO^2 (waste product)
What is the fourth step of cell respiration? The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis (The big ATP payoff); occurs in the mitochondria electrons from H+ are carried by NADH to the electron transport chain to make ATP--- Makes 32 ATPs
What is ATP and what does it do? Adenosine triphosphate; it provides the energy for everything we do
How many ATPs does the Krebs Cycle produce? 4, but creates a lot of NADH for the next step
Who discovered the Krebs Cycle? Hans Krebs won the Nobel Prize in 1953 for his discovery
Who won the Nobel Prize for his work on energy production in the mitochondria? Peter Mitchell in 1978
Is there an alternative to using glucose for making ATP? Yes; Making energy from fats and proteins
What happens when your body uses fat as fuel? triacyglycerol is stored in adipose cells. Lipases are released into the blood stream to break down fats in the blood or go to adipose cells
What are the steps of the process used to convert fat into fuel? Lipases break glycerol heads away from fatty acids Glycerol converted into an intermediate in glycolysis called PGAL and enters cell respiration in the mitchondria The fatty acid tails converted to Acetyl CoA & enter the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria
How many ATPs are gleaned from the body using fat as fuel? About 32-38
What happens when your body uses protein as fuel? Proteases break the peptide bonds of proteins down to amino acids Deaminases break the amino group off the amino acids, releasing amonia. The rest of the amino acid can enter cell respiration as pyruvate, acetyl CoA or directly into the Krebs Cycle
What is anaerobic respiration (or fermentation)? This is what happens when there is not enough oxygen to complete cellular respiration. It only goes as far as glycolysis and therefore only produces 2 ATPs (actually 4, but two are needed to do glycolysis)
What are the results of anaerobic respiration? Your cells have enough energy to keep going for a little bit and lactic acid is produced. This is the cause of the burning sensation humans get after a hard workout Lactic acid + Hydrogen cause pain and burning sensations in muscles.
What happens when yeast cells are placed in sub-optimal oxygen concentrations with grape or malt sugar? The yeast reacts with its surroundings and ferments, making beer, wine, or champagne. This is because a waste product of fermentation is ethyl alcohol.
Why doesn't the alcohol percentage get any higher after about 8%? Because the fermentation process can no longer occur; the oxygen/sugar has been used up and there is no way the yeast can continue reacting with its surroundings.
What is photosynthesis? The process in which plants use energy from sunlight to make carbohydrates. Plants take carbon dioxide and water and raise their energy levels to a point at which glucose can be formed. (The opposite of cell respiration)
What is chlorophyll? The main pigment in plants; it absorbs red and blue lights, so we see plants as green.
What are the two stages of photo synthesis? Light dependent reactions and light independent reactions
What are light dependent reactions? -require the direct involvement of light -occurs in the photosynthetic membranes of the chloroplasts
How do light dependent reactions work? Electron transport chain passes electrons along, creating ATP Additional light energy raises the energy level of the electrons Electrons are replaced by splitting water molecules Produces 2 main products: ATP & high energy electrons carried by NADPH
What are light independent reactions? Do not require the direct involvement of light.
What happens in light independent reactions? Energy is converted from the ATP molecules and NADPH into a form that can be stored indefinitely
What is the Calvin Cycle? Uses one carbon dioxide molecule and two hydrogen atoms to produce a glucose molecule (takes six turns)
What is the formula for photosynthesis? 6CO^2 + 6H^2O + Energy -----> C^6H^12O^6 + 6O^2 (opposite of cell respiration)
What are autotrophs? self feeders: organisms capable of making their own food -photoautotrophs: they use the sun's energy to make food -chemoautotrophs: use chemical energy to make food
What is ADP? adenine diphosphate
What is ATP used for? active transport, contracting muscles, making proteins, etc.
How much ATP do cells contain? Only enough for a few seconds' worth of energy; it regenerates from ADP as needed
When does ATP release energy? When the bonds between the phosphate groups are broken
Where does the energy to add another phosphate group to ADP in order to make ATP? The chemical bonds in food
Energy is measured in what? Calories; one calorie is the amount of energy needed to heat a gram of water one degree Celsius
What would happen if cell respiration only took place in one step? Most of the energy would be lost in the form of heat.
What forms of life use cellular respiration? Almost all lifeforms
Compare and contrast cell respiration and photosynthesis: function. CR: energy release PH: energy capture
Compare and contrast cell respiration and photosynthesis: location of the reactions. CR: Mitochondria and cytoplasm PH: chloroplasts
Compare and contrast cell respiration and photosynthesis: reactants. CR: ADP PH: water and carbon dioxide
Compare and contrast cell respiration and photosynthesis: products. CR: ATP and glucose PH: high energy sugars and oxygen
What happens during ATP synthesis (step one)? -electron carriers bring high energy electrons down the transport chain; oxygen is the final electron acceptor
What happens during ATP synthesis (step two)? -passing electrons through the transport chain causes H+ ions to build up in the intermembrane, making is positively charged compared to the matrix
What happens during ATP synthesis (step three)? the charge difference across the membrane forces the hydrogen ions through channels in enzymes called ATP synthases. As the ATP synthases spin , a phosphate group is added to ADP, which makes ATP.
What are two advantages of glycolysis? The speed of glycolysis is quick and can meet demands for energy quickly. Doesn't require oxygen
What two things pass high energy electrons to the electron transport chain? NADH and FADH2
How many ATP molecules per glucose molecule does a cell gain from each of the three stages of cell respiration? Glycolysis: 2 (actually makes 4, but you have to take away two molecules for the two it takes to conduct glycolysis) Krebs cycle: 2 Electron transport: 32 Total: 36 glucose molecules
What other molecules, besides glucose, can be used to produce ATP in cell respiration? lipids, proteins, and starches
Where does body heat come from? The 64% energy in glucose; the 36 glucose molecules recover 30% of the energy from glycolysis and release it as heat
Created by: namelyme001