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Earth Struct. Proc.

Science Volcanoes and Earthquakes

Instrument that records seismic waves Seismograph
Seismic sea wave; becomes more dangerous as it gets closer to shore and can be very destructive Tsunami
The point inside earth where movement from an earthquake first occurs Focus
Vibrations caused by rocks breaking and moving as a result of a sudden release of energy Earthquake
The point on earths surface located directly above the earthquake focus Epicenter
Type of seismic wave that travels fastest through rock material by causing rocks to vibrate in same direction as the waves P-Waves
Type of seismic wave that travels slowest and causes most of the destruction Surface Waves
Type of seismic wave that moves through rocks by causing rocks to vibrate at right angles to the direction of the waves Secondary Wave
A building able to stand up against an earthquake is considered... Seismic Safe
Fault created by rocks pulled apart Normal Fault
Fault created when rocks are sheared Strike-Slip Fault
Type of fault created when rocks are compressed Reverse Fault
Moderate to violent eruptions throwing volcanic ash, cinders, and lava into air; small cone formed by tephra; Ex. Sunset Crater, Flagstaff, Arizona Cinder Cone Volcano
Largest type of volcano; buildup of balastic layers form broad volcano with gently sloping sides Shield Volcano
Sometimes erupts violently, forming tephra, sometimes smaller forming lava layer; forms along subduction zones; Mnt. St. Helens, Washington; Steep sided mountain composed of alternating layers of tephra and lava Composite Volcano
Hot, glowing rock on cushions of hot gases Pyroclastic Flow
Often accompany eruptions, can be brought on by heavy rain Mudflows
Magma when it reaches earth's surface Lava
Thick and more resistant to flow Lava Rich in Silica
Flows easily Lava Rich in Iron and Magnesium
Ash, cinders, solidified lava Tephra
Broken into sections, or plates. When they move, could collide, slide past, or move apart. Cause vibrations Lithosphere
Fractures that serve as passageways for magma from mantle. Eruptions expected there are fissure eruptions Rifts
Basalt and sediment move into mantle. Water from sediment and basalt lowers melting point of rocks. Heat in mantle causes part of plate and mantle to melt. Melted material forms volcanoes. Sinks beneath less dense plate Convergent Boundary and How Volcanoes Form
Form along rift zones, hot spots, or subduction zones. Volcano Formation Locations
Occur mostly on well known belts. Greater percentage at Ring of Fire. Happen as a result of plates moving Earthquakes
Mechanism for plate motion, which produces conditions that cause volcanoes and earthquakes. Convection Theory of Plate Movement
Plates slide past one another Transform Boundary
One plate sinks beneath another Convergent Boundary
Plates pull apart Divergent Boundary
Scale used to measure magnitide Richter Scale
Scale to measure intensity and damage to structures Mercalli Scale
As rocks strain, potential energy builds up. Energy is released by rocks breaking and moving Elastic Rebound
Created by: cbor5912
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