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INC1

Integrated Natural Science

QuestionAnswer
What is the definition of 'method'? a way of exploring nature and discovering the order within it.
What is the definition of 'cause-and-effect relationships? trying to find out what events cause what results.
When did Johann Gutenberg invent the printing press? In the 15th century.
Who were the first people to formalize a particular method for doing science? Galileo and Francis Bacon.
What is the definition of hypothesis? An educated guess that tentatively answers a question or solves a problem in regard to the physical world.
What is the 'principal of falsifiability'? It must, in principle, be capable of being proven wrong.
What is the definition of 'law (principle)'? When a scientific hypothesis has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted.
What is the definition of 'fact'? Something that competent observers can observe and agree to be true.
What is the definition of 'theory'? Synthesis of facts and well tested hypothesis.
How does science differ from religion? Science asks how and religion asks why.
What is the definition of 'natural philosophy'? Study of answered questions about nature.
What sub-studies does 'life science' include? Molecular biology, microbiology, and ecology.
What sub-studies does 'physical science' include? Physics, chemistry, earth science, and astrology.
What sub-studies does 'physics' include? Motion, force, energy, matter, heat, sound, and light.
What is the definition of 'chemistry'? Tells us how matter is put together.
What is a 'control test'? Test that excludes the variable being investigated in a scientific experiment.
What is the definition of 'theory'? A synthesis of large body of info. that encompasses well-tested hypothesis about certain aspects of the natural world.
What is the definition of 'technology' in relation to science? Means of solving practical problems by applying findings of science.
When did Galileo demolish Aristotle's belief that heavy objects fall faster than light objects? In the 1500's.
What is the definition of 'inertia'? Moving objects tend to remain moving.
What is a 'systems approach'? The whole rather than the sum of the parts.
What is the definition of 'systems biology'? Studying or modeling biology systems as a whole, instead of studying each part separately.
What is the definition of 'kilograms'? SI unit of mass that measures by comparing something's weight to the weight of a standard mass.
What is the definition of 'kelvin'? SI unit of thermodynamic temperature, equal in magnitude to the degree Celsius.
What is the definition of 'pH'? Figure/# expressing acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a logaorithmic scale which 7 is neutral, when values are more acidic and higher values are alkalinic.
What is the definition of 'joules'? SI unit of work or energy, equal to the work done by a force of one newton when it's point of application moves one meter in the direction of action of the force.
What is the definition of 'newtons'? SI derived unit used to measure force.
What is the definition of 'liters'? Metric unit of capacity.
What is the definition of 'grams'? Metric unit of mass equal to one-thousandth of a kilogram.
What is the definition of 'micrometers'? A gauge that measures small distances of thickens between it's 2 faces.
What is 'km/hr'? Unit of speed (kilometer per hour).
What is the definition of 'millimeters'? One-thousandth of a meter.
What is the definition of 'amperes'? Unit of electric current equal to a flow of one coulomb per second.
What is the definition of 'volts'? Unit of electromotive force, the difference of potential that would drive one ampere of current against one ohm resistance.
What is the definition of 'millivolts'? One-thousandth of a volt.
What is the definition of 'ohms'? SI derived unit of electrical resistance.
What is the definition of 'nanometers'? One billionth of a meter.
What is the definition of 'meters'? Fundamental unit of length in the metric system, equal to 100 centimeters.
What is the definition of 'watts'? SI unit of power, equivalent to one joule per second, corresponding to the power in an electric circuit in which the potential difference is one volt and the current one ampere.
What is the definition of 'biology'? Study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields.
What is the definition of 'geology'? Science that deals with earth's physical structure and substance, and it's history and process that acts on it.
What is the definition of 'momentum'? Inertia in motion.
What happens when the momentum occurs over a short period of time? The hitting force is large.
What is the definition of 'Newton's 2nd Law'? If we want to accelerate an object, we must apply force to it.
What is the definition of 'Newton's 3rd Law'? All forces have a force that is equal and opposite.
What are atoms made of? Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons
What charge does an Electron have? A negative charge.
What charge does a neutron have? A neutral charge.
What charge does a proton have? A positive charge.
What is a 'stable nuclei'? Nuclei that have the right balance of neutrons and protons and the right amount of energy to remain unchanged for a long time.
Atoms with unstable nuclei are said to be...? Radioactive.
What is the definition of 'radioactivity'? Process of breakdown of materials in which energetic particles are ejected and emit radioactive electromagnetic radiation.
Elements containing an atomic number greater than ___ are radioactive. 82 (lead)
What are 'alpha particles'? Combination of 2 protons and 2 neutrons (nucleus of helium atom)
Helium atoms at one point were what? Energetic alpha particles.
What are 'beta particles'? An electron ejected from a nucleus.
What are 'gamma rays'? High frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by radioactive elements.
What is the definition of 'half life'? Rate of decay for a radioactive isotope.
What is 'nuclear fission'? Nuclear reaction in which heavy nucleus splits into 2 lighter nuclei.
What is 'nuclear fusion'? Nuclear reaction in which 2 light nuclei combine or fuse to form a heavier nuclei.
What is 'thermonuclear fusion'? Fusion brought about by high temperatures.
What is a 'chain reaction'? Self-sustaining reaction in which the products of one reaction event stimulate further reaction events.
What is 'critical mass'? The minimum mass of fissionable material in a reaction or nuclear bomb that will sustain a chain reaction.
What is 'transmutation'? Conversion of an atomic nucleus of one element into an atomic nucleus of another element through loss or gain in number of protons.
What is the order of the plants from the sun? Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Asteroid belt. Then Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
What is the definition of 'eclipitc'? Defined as plane of Earth's orbit.
What are some of the characteristics of Mercury? Fastest spinning planet, very hot, and hold very little atmosphere.
What are some of the characteristics of Venus? Most closely resembles, similar in size/density to the sun,very dense atmosphere, hottest planet.
What are some of the characteristics of Mars? Contains core, mantle and crust, thin atmosphere, seasons that are 2x longer than earth's, very low density
What are some of the characteristics of Jupiter? Largest planet, mostly liquid composition, greatest mass of all planets.
What are some of the characteristics of Saturn? Second largest in mass and size, composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, lowest density of any planet.
What are some of the characteristics of Uranus? No internal heat source meaning it is very cold and is 4x the size of earth.
What are some of the characteristics of Neptune? Atmosphere is mostly composed of hydrogen and helium with some methane and ammonia, density is a third that of earth's.
What are some characteristics of Pluto? Very, very small, composed of rock and nitrogen ice with a highly inclined orbit.
What is the H-R diagram? Show the plots of the luminosity versus surface temperature of stars.
What are Main Sequence Stars? Stars (including our sun) that generate energy by fusing hydrogen to helium.
What are Red Giant Stars? Stars that have very low surface temperatures, bright, and larger than the sun.
What are White Dwarf Stars? Dead stars that have exhausted their nuclear fuel - very, very small/hot, and very high density.
How did the Sun form? From an expansive, low-density cloud of gas and dust called a Nebula.
What is our Galaxy called? Milkyway Galaxy.
What do the stars in our galaxy orbit? They orbit a black hole at the center of the galaxy.
What are the three types of galaxies? Spiral, elliptical, and irregular.
What were the two main theories of how our galaxy came to be? Creation by supreme being and eternal existence.
What evidence supports the Big Bang Theory? Redshift of galaxies (expansion), Cosmic microwave background radiation, and an abundance of hydrogen and helium.
What are the end of the universe possibilities? Re-collapsing universe, critical universe, coasting universe, and accelerating universe.
What is Hubble's Law? More distant galaxies are moving away faster than closer galaxies.
What are the layers of the atmosphere (from bottom to top? Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, and exosphere.
What layer of the atmosphere do people live in? Troposphere.
What layer of the atmosphere is the lowest and thinnest? Troposphere.
What layer of the atmosphere contains the Ozone layer? Stratosphere.
Which layer of the atmosphere has a decrease in temperature with altitude? Mesosphere.
Which layer of the atmosphere absorbs most of the x-rays and UV radiation? Thermosphere.
What is the Ionosphere? Layer of atmosphere that has an electrified region. (not a true layer of the atmosphere)
What is the Exosphere? Interface between Earth and space.
What is the atmosphere composed of? Mostly nitrogen, oxygen and argon.
What is the Coriolis Force? Moving bodies (such as air) deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
What are P-waves? Body waves that travel longitudinally through the Earth's interior.
What are S-waves? Surface waves that travel transversely on Earth's surface like ripples on water.
Which types of waves cannot pass through the Earth's core? S-waves.
What is the definition of the Earth's Crust? Thin, brittle surface layer.
What is the Oceanic Crust? Dark, dense, fine-grained rock (basalt).
What is the Continental Crust? Less dense, lighter-colored granitic rocks.
What is the definition of Mantle? Earth's thickest layer, rich in silicon, oxygen and also composed of iron, magnesium, and calcium.
What is the Lithosphere? Upper mantle that is cool, rigid, stiff and breakable.
What is the Asthenosphere? Lower mantle that is solid under stress but can behave like a fluid when stress is applied slowly.
Created by: lextron