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Unit 3 - Homeostasis

Body systems, coordination, disease, immune system

TermDefinition
Enzymes proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in living things
Respiration the process by which the chemical bond energy stored in nutrients is released for use in cells
Synthesis a life process that involves combining simple substances into more complex substances
Biochemical process a chemical process that occurs in a living thing
Photosynthesis the process by which some organisms are able to capture light energy and use it to make food from carbon dioxide and water
Homeostasis the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment even when the external environment changes
Glucose a sugar that is a major source of energy for cells
ATP (adenine triphosphate) a compound that stores energy in cells
Chloroplasts green organelles that contain chlorophyll; where photosynthesis takes place
Gas exchange the process of obtaining oxygen from the environment and releasing carbon dioxide
Catalyst a substance that can speed up the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed or used up during the reaction
pH a measure of whether a substance is acidic, neutral, or basic
Dynamic equilibrium the constant small corrections that normally occur to keep an organism’s internal environment within the limits needed for survival
Feedback mechanism a cycle in which the output of a system either modifies or reinforces the first action taken by the system
Stimulus any change in the internal or external environment that causes an organism to react
Pancreas an endocrine organ that secretes insulin
Insulin a hormone that prompts glucose to move from the blood into body cells,
Guard cells specialized cells that control the opening and closing of the pores on the surface of a leaf
Disease a condition, other than injury, that prevents the body from working as it should
Pathogen an organism that invades the body, causing disease
Virus a nonliving particle of protein and genetic material that reproduces by invading the cell of a living organism
Bacterium any one of many single-celled organisms without a distinct nucleus
Fungi the kingdom of organisms that are mostly multicellular, have cell walls made of chitin, and are heterotrophic
Parasite an organism that survives by living and feeding on other organisms
Immune system the body’s primary defense against disease-causing pathogens
Antigen a molecule found on the outer surfaces of cells that the immune system recognizes as either part of the body or an outside invader
Antibody a protein, produced by the immune system, that either attacks invading pathogens or marks them for killing
Microbe any microscopic organism
Vaccines a substance made of weakened, killed, or partial pathogens and designed to protect the body from future invasions of that pathogen
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) the disease that results when the HIV virus attacks the human immune system
Allergy a condition in which a person’s immune system is overly sensitive to environmental substances that are normally harmless
Cancer the disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body
Histamine a compound that is released by cells in response to injury and in allergic and inflammatory reactions, causing contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of capillaries
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus weakens your immune system by infect and destroy t-cells, leaving the body vulnerable to disease and infection
White Blood Cell Blood cells that work for the immune system
Macrophage a large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection
Memory cell a long-lived lymphocyte capable of responding to a particular antigen on its reintroduction, long after the exposure that prompted its production
Plasma cell a fully differentiated B cell that produces a single type of antibody
Tumor a swelling of a part of the body, generally without inflammation, caused by an abnormal growth of tissue, whether benign (safe) or malignant (deadly)
Created by: mrcadettescience