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LAHS Biology 1

The purpose of science: investigate and understand the natural world
Define Hypothesis suggest how or why something happens
Controlled experiment set up in duplicate, test one variable
Define Homeostasis maintain internal balance
Levels of organization sm->lg cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, ecosystem, biosphere
C6H12O6 6 molecules of carbon, 12 molecules of hydrogen, 6 molecules of oxygen
Chemical formula for water: H2O
Define polar when electrons are concentrated on one side of molecule, creating a slightly more negative charge
Define solution solute particles are dissolved in solvent (bulk of the solution)
What is the best solvent? water
What is an acid? Substance with excess Hydrogen atoms
What is the pH of an acid? Less than 7 (a base is more than 7, and neutral is 7)
What are the 4 organic compounds in animals? Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid (DNA,RNA)
What are the monomers/subunits for each organic compound polymer? Amino acid-protein, fatty acid & glycerol-lipid, monosaccharides & polysaccharides-carbohydrate, nucleotide-nucleic acid
define chemical reaction: bonds are broken, atoms are rearranged, new bonds form
hydrogen + oxygen ->Water What are the reactants? Hydrogen, oxygen
hydrogen + oxygen ->Water What are the products? Water
Define optimum best
List facts about enzymes: They work best at certain pH, temperature, ion concentration(optimum conditions). They can be reused, are not used up and only needed in small amounts. They are proteins. There shape is specific and allows them to do their job. They are catalysts.
Define denaturation at high temperatures, enzymes unravel and can no longer do their job
Where are ribosomes found? Free floating in the cytoplasm or on endoplasmic reticulum making it rough ER
describe protein structure composed of 20 different amino acids arranged in infinite number sequences to make thousands of different proteins
What is the base pair rule in DNA? Adenine =Thymine; Cytosine =Guanine
What is gene expression? All cells have identical chromosomes with genes, but only certain genes are expressed and making proteins in that cell to make that cell specialized
Describe cell membrane semipermeable; 2 layers lipids with proteins; fluid mosaic; regulates what enters/leaves the cell; both in plant and animal cells
Define cell wall an added layer on the outside of cell membrane; plants only; protection & support
Where are proteins modified, processed and packaged? Golgi
What is the function of chlorophyll? in plants -Capture sunlight energy and change it to glucose chemical energy
Where is chlorophyll found? In chloroplasts of green plants
What chemical in a cell is responsible for storing and releasing energy? ATP
define cell respiration in mitochondria-oxygen plus glucose form carbon dioxide plus ATP
define diffusion movement of substances/gases across a cell membrane
viruses and prokaryotes are similar because they both have DNA and RNA
Define catalysts speed up chemical reaction by lowering activation energy.
Created by: iroum