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igneous rock formed when magma cools and hardens
magma magma forms when rock melts
crystalline full of crystals
intrusive magma cools below ground; larger crystals
extrusive magma cools above ground
coarse-grained generally light colored with dark crystals spread throughout
fine-grained small grains invisible to the human eye
porphyritic rock with a mix of large and small crystals; granite is an example
glassy few or no crystals; obsidian is an example
vesicular many holes inside and outside; pumice is an example
felsic rich in minerals that form feldspar and quartz
mafic contains a group of dark colored minerals
compaction sediment progressively loses its porosity due to the effects of loading
chemical sedimentary rock formed when minerals, dissolved in water, begin to precipitate out of solution and deposit at the base of the water body
organic sedimentary rock contains significant amounts of organic carbon
clastic sedimentary rock form by weathering processes which break down rocks into pebble, sand, or clay particles by exposure to wind, ice, and water
sorting the tendency for currents of air or water to separate sediments according to size
cementation hardening and welding of clastic sediments by the precipitation of mineral in the pore spaces
angularity used to describe the shape of the corners on a particle of sediment
stratification the layering of rocks
cross-bedding horizontal units that are internally composed of inclined layers
ripple marks sedimentary structures and indicate agitation by water or wind
mud cracks when muddy deposits dry and shrink
concretions lumps of rock that have a composition that is different from that of the main body
Created by: kaeleidavis
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