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8th Grade Midterm

Chapters 1, 2, 4, 6

What measures the pull of gravity on an object? weight
What are substances composed of only one type of atom called? element
The type of soil that contains a mixture of sand, silt, clay, and humus loam
A substances having a pH of 10 would be an acid or base? base
A theory that has never been proven false______? law
What measures the amount of matter in an object? mass
What measures how tightly packed matter is? density
A sensible explanation to a scientific problem? hypothesis
what are substances composed of two or more elements bonded together called? compound
what are the 3 primary plant food elements? nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus.
what is the study of soil? pedology
what is soil primarily derived from living organisms? organic material
What is soil primarily derived from nonliving matter? mineral material
What is the breakdown of organisms? decomposition
What is a substance composed of decayed organisms’ particles? humus
What is the term for reusing old materials? recycling
What is the process that breaks rocks down into soil? weathering
What are the top 2 to 6 inches of soil called? (top layer of soil) topsoil
What is the layer of solid rock below the soil called? bedrock
What is a self-pumping well called? artesian well
In what type of fault do rocks along one side of the fault move horizontally along the fault? strike-slip fault
The point deep within the earth at which an earthquake begins is the: focus
The narrow zone of active volcanoes that nearly encircles the Pacific basin is the: ring of fire
About 80% of the world’s earthquakes occur in what belt? circum-pacific belt
The bending or buckling of rocks under great force produces a: fold
The inner core of the earth is a solid, liquid, or gas? solid
What is an inactive volcano that can erupt again called? dormant
What is an instrument used to record the vibrations caused by earthquakes? seismograph
What is the well-known strike-slip fault in California called? San Andreas Fault
What is the study of earth called? geology
What is the study of earthquakes called? seismology
All the present-day continents are thought to have once been one land mass called? Pangea
What is an earthquake caused by sudden movements of rock beneath the earth’s surface? tectonic earthquake
What is a domelike igneous intrusion formed when magma bulges overlying rocks upward called? laccolith
Which type of volcano consists primarily of erupted volcanic ash and rock fragments called? cinder cone
Which type of volcano has broad, gently sloping sides made of highly fluid lava that hardened into rock? sheild
Which type of volcano forms partly by explosive eruptions of ash and rock fragments and partly by lava flows? composite
What theory states that rocks spring back into a position of little or no strain at the moment of an earthquake? elastic rebound theory
What are the fastest earthquake waves? primary (P) waves
What is the most famous scale used to measure earthquakes? Richter Scale
Which type of mountain forms when molten rock collects beneath an overlying rock layer, forming a blisterlike structure? domed mountain
Which type of mountain forms when rocks on one side of a fault are forced upward and the rocks on the other side are forced downward? fault-block mountain
Which type of mountain forms when molten rock erupts from a hole in the earth’s crust? volcanic mountains
Which type of mountain forms when two rock layers are pushed together, causing the layers to buckle? folded mountains
What is the point on the earth’s surface directly above the point where an earthquake begins? epicenter
What is an archlike structure formed when rocks are folded upward? anticline
Streams that feed into a river at various points Tributaries
Thick ice sheet that slowly moves under its own weight Glacier
High ridge of rock and land that projects out into the sea Promontory
Water from rain that cannot be absorbed by the ground Runoff
The eroding action of windblown sand Abrasion
A mass of ice and snow abruptly dislodging from a mountain Avalanche
A long pile of rocks deposited parallel to the shore Breakwater
A glacial valley that has filled with seawater Fjord
Large streams of ocean water that flow at or below the surface are called: Ocean Currents
Large masses of water flowing horizontally along the surface are called: Surface Currents
A circular path of a surface current is called a: Gyre
Ocean currents that flow beneath the surface are called: Subsurface Currents
Differences in density can cause ____________ currents. Density
A type of density current that occurs when mud mixes with seawater is a: Turbidity Current
Deep, cool water moves to the surface to fill a void, forming an upward flowing current is called an: Upwelling
A current that flows in the opposite direction either beside, on top of, or beneath the surface current is a: Counter Current
The study of oceans is called: Oceanography
The measure of dissolved salt in seawater is its: Salanity
Cold water is ________ dense than warm water. more
Non-salty water is _________ dense than salty water less
The pressure from water is: Hydrostatic Pressure
Hydrostatic pressure is measured in: Pounds per square inch
When saltwater freezes it's called: Sea Ice
When glaciers reach the sea and break off it forms: Icebergs
When glaciers reach the sea and extend across the surface it forms an: Ice Shelf
What is the boundary where warm surface water meets cold deep water? Thermocline
List the 6 steps of the scientific method: State the problem Gather info Form a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Record and analyze State the conclusion
Created by: misschapman