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Earth Science


Temp, wind direction and speed, Precipitation, cloud cover, humidity and barometric pressure Weather
Atmosphere conditions, averaged over a specific time period Climate
Composition of the Atmosphere(NITROGEN) 78%(N2)
Composition of the Atmosphere(OXYGEN) 21%(O2)
Composition of the Atmosphere(ARGON) <1%(Ar)
Composition of the Atmosphere(CARBON DIOXIDE) 0.036%(CO2)
Layer nearest to earth extends up to 10 km temp decreases with altitude all weather is contained within this layer upper boundary is the troposphere ATMOSPHERIC LAYERS(TROPOSPHERE)
Temp decreases with increasing altitude Meteorites, burn in this layer meteor shower ATMOSPHERIC LAYERS(MESOSPHERE)
Temp increases with increasing altitude Due to the ozone layer Jetstream in the lower part ATMOSPHERIC LAYERS(STRATOSPHERE)
Outermost Layer temp increases with increasing altitude Absorbing high level energy from the sun northern lights within this layer ATMOSPHERIC LAYERS(THERMOSPHERE)
Average Kinetic energy of the atoms of the atoms of molecules.(RELATED TO THE ABSORPTION OF SOLAR RADIATION) Temp
Total kinetic energy dependent on mass Heat
Influences the amount of solar radiation received. Rotates every 24 hours Earth Motions
Tilt of earth? 23.5
Earth is closest to the sun on? Jan 6
Earth is furthest from the sun in? July
Northern Hemisphere Sept 22-23
Winter Solstice Dec 21-22
Spring equinox March 20-21
Summer solstice June 21-22
Requires a solid mass Conduction
Requires liquid or gas. Density driven warm buoyant Convection
No mass required, cant travel through space Radiation
High energy Short wavelengths
low energy Longer wavelengths
Measured in calories of joules, energy required to change from liquid to gas and solid to gas Heat energy
Stored or hidden heat used during a phase change Latent Heat
Amount of water vapor in the air Humidity
Max amount of water vapor, depending on air temp Saturated Air
Capacity Is temp dependent
Can hold more Moisture Warmer
Can hold less moisture Colder
Pressure is the mass of air under the force of gravity Vapor Pressure
Relative Humidity Given as a percent
temp at which the specific humidity is equal to saturation quality Dew point
Dry bulb Actual temp
Wet bulb lower depending on the amount of evaporation
Adiabatic temp changers occur when air is compressed
Descending air is compressed R.H decreases
Air will cool R.H increases
Cold Front coming into an area Frontal wedging
In areas with Mountains Forceful lifting from below Orographic lifting
where air is flowing together and rising Convergence
Lifting influenced by land surfaces. Localized Convective
How does the air temp change as an air parcel rises Temp decreases, air parcel cools
what happens to relative humidity as an air parcel rises Relative humidity increases
How does the air temp change as an air parcel descends Temp increases
What happens to relative humidity as an air parcel descends R.H decreases
High level or wispy or curly, completely made of ice and or crystals Cirrus
Blanketing an area. Moderate levels. rain associated. nimbo stratus may be associated with a warm front Stratus
Larger, puffy clouds. Fair weather. Evidence of differential heating. Cumulus
A cloud with its base at or very near the ground. Fog
Surface, over a large area warm moist air comes onto the land. R.H goes up until its 1oo% then fog forms Advection fog
Forms on cool clear nights, usually in valleys where the cool air is setting Radiation fog
On the windward side of a mountain range Unslope fog
during fall, In the evening or early morning air over the water is warmer and has more specific humidity Steam fog
Most common process can form rain or snow but starts as ice crystals Bergeron Process
Pure water can remain suspended in the air as a liquid down to -40*c. Pure water droplets Supercoiling
R.H gets above 100% S.C and S.S= rapid formation of ice crystals Super saturation
On a global scale Convection
warm air rises at the equator. low pressure center develops near the equator. Doldrums air flow Hudley cell
Instrument used to measure air pressure Barometer
Result of variations in atmosphere pressure related to differential heating. wind
Blows fro areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure. similar to water flowing down hill wind
Lines on a map connecting points of equal air pressure. isobars
Moves from high to low wind
sinking and warming due to pressure and adiabatic warming cool dry air
downward and out from high pressure center air flow
Continental Polar CP, Midwest cold air from canada
Mavitime Polar MP, over the pacific ocean
Mavitime Tropical MT, humid and warm
Continental Tropical CT, dry air and warm
over takes warm air(CP->MT) Cold air
forces warm air upward cold air
(cold fronts)- cumulonimbus clouds higher relative humidity likely to have precipitation lower air pressures ahead
(cold Fronts)- clearing skies rising pressure lower relative humilities. behind
vertical profile warm front
usually results in stratus clouds warm front
cold front over takes a warm front occluded front
may develop a low pressure center occluded front
associated with mid-latitude cyclone occluded front
cold air flows in one direction warm air flows in opposite direction can cause flooding stationary
violent wind storm, rotating column of air that extends down from a cumulonimbus cloud. tornadoes
combined winds with thunderstorm(cold front) and down draft heavy rain or hail. Microbursts
caused by the rapid expansion of air around a lightning bolt thunder
controls on global climate change Climate variabilty
Sunspot cycle little ice age in Europe solar output
maunder minimum solar output
associated with warming green house
saw tooth pattern- precessive, obliquity-tilt, eccentricity milankovitch cycles
long term plate tectonics
influences the temp range precipitation
vertical growth R.H is higher as air mass is forced upward and cooling cumulonimbus clouds
occurs between oppositely charged particles within a cloud Sheet lightning
Occurring between the cloud and something on the land surface (trees, and high buildings) forked lightning
low pressure, wind speed 0-38? tropical depression
wind speeds 38-74 mph with lots of rain tropical storm
rotating wall of cumulonimbus clouds often with lighting wall cloud
center of a very strong hurricane eye
arms of clouds with great amount of precipitation rain bands
Airflow that is most common with severe weather Airflow inwards and upwards
What cloud type is most common with severe weather cumulonimbus
Tornadoes is the Midwest are when Spring and summer
Southeast Tornadoes occur when summer to fall
Two characteristic of hurricanes that cause the most damage High winds and Flooding
What does the self-ionization of water cause that is related to severe weather lighting
amount of incoming solar radiation latitude
Temp decreases with increasing elevation elevation
At 12 on Feb 7, the sun is directly overhead at Some point between the tropic of Capricorn and the equator, heading northward
The normal change in temp with altitude for a given location is the environmental lapse rate
What is the 3 most abundant gases in the atmosphere Nitrogen, oxygen, argon
When warm moist air moves over a cold surface as a commonly occurs in san Francisco this type of fog will occur Advection fog
If fair weather is approaching the air pressure tendency would probably be rising
Airflow near the equator is dominated by these wind patterns doldrums
A typhoon is the same as a hurricane
What is the range of wind speed for a tropical storm 38-74 mph
If an observer sees cirrus clouds, followed later by cirrostratus and then altostratus, he or she is witnessing the approach of an Warm front
Location near a large body of water generally have moderated climates due to the high specific heat of water True
Created by: mikemike423