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Bio Semester test


Photosynthesis the process by which plants, alage, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen.
cellular respiration the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates.
ATP adenine patriarchate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups.
ATP Synthase an enzyme that catalyzes the syntheses of ATP
Electron Transport Chain a series of molecules, found in the inner membrane of mitochondria and chloroplast, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane.
Thylaktoid a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis.
pigment a substance that gives another substance or a mixture its color.
Chlorophyll a green pigment that is present in most plants and algae cells and come bacteria. that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that absorbs light to provide energy for photosynthesis.
Calvin Cycle a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP and NADPH
glycolysis the anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP
anaerobic describes a process that does not require oxygen
aerobic describes a process that requires oxygen
kreb cycle a series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvates into carbon dioxide and water
fermentation the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeast, or mold in the absence of oxygen
Charter a recognizable inherited feature or characteristic of an organism
trait one of two or more possible forms of a character. a recognizable feature or characteristic of an organism
hybrid the offspring of a cross between parents that have contracting traits.
generation the entire group of offspring produced by a given group of parents
allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene, each leading to a unique trait.
domainant describes an allele that is fully expressed whenever the allele is present in an individual
recessive describes an allele that is expressed only when there is no dominant allele present in an individual
genotype a specific combination of allele in an individual
phenotype the detectable trait or traits results from two genotype of an individual
homozygous describes an individual that carries two identical alleles of a gene
heterozygous describes an individual that carries two different alleles of a gene
punnet square a graphic used top predict the results of a genetic cross
probability the likelihood that a specific event will occur; expressed in mathmatical terms
pedigree a digram that shows the occurrence of agentic triat in several generations of a family
genetic disorder an inherited disease or disorder that is caused by a mutation in a gene or by a chromosomal defects
polygenic character a character that is influenced by more than one gene
codominance a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed.
linked in genetics, describes two or more genes that tend to be inherited together.
gene a segment of DNA that is located in a chromosome and that codes for a specific hereditary trait.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
nucleotide in a nucleic acid chain, a sub unit that consist of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.
purine a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure, adenine or guanine.
pyrimidine a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; in DNA, either thymine or cytosine.
DNA replication the process of making a copy of DNA
DNA Helicase an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix during DNA replication
DNA polymerase an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule
RNA ribonuclic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein structure.
gene expression the manifestation of the genetic material of an organism in the form of specific traits.
transcription the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template
translation the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codon in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains.
codon in DNA and mRNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal.
mutation a change in the structure or amount of the genetic material of an organism.
nondisjunction a failure of homologous chromosomes to sperate during meiosis 1 or the failure of sister chromatids to seperate during mitosis or meiosis 2
polyploidy an abnormal condition of having more than two sets of chromosomes
operon a unit of adjacent genes that consist of funtionally related structural genes and their associated regulatory genes
transcription factor an enzyme that is needed to begin and/or continue genetic transcription
intron a nucleotide sequence that is part of a gene and that is transcribed from DNA into mRNA but not trasnlated into amino acids
exon on of several nonadjacent nucleotides sequences that are part of one gene and that are transcribed, joined together, and then translated.
domain in proteins, a functional unit that has a distinctive pattern of structural folding
genome the complete genetic material contained in an individual or species
plasmid genetic structure that can replicate independently of the main chromosome
transposon a genetic sequence that is randomly moved in a functional unit to a new place in a genome
cell differentiation the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function during multicellular development
apopotosis in multicellualr organism a genetically controlled process that leads to the death of a cell, programmed cell death
cuticle a waxy or fatty and watertight layer on the external wall of epidermal cells
spore a reproductive cell or multicellular structure that is resistant to environmental conditions
sporophyte in plants and algae that have alternation of generations, the diploid individual or generation that produces haploid spores.
gametophyte in alternation of generation the phase in which gametes are formed; a haploid individual that produces gametes.
archegonium a female reproductive structure that produces a single egg in which fertilization and development takes place.
antheridium a reproductive structure that produces male sex cells in seedless plants
spornagium a specialized sac, case, capsule, or other structures that produce spores.
rhizome a horizontal undergorund stem that provided a mechanism for sexual reproduction.
frond a leaf of a fern or palm
sorus a cluster of sporangium
Created by: RobertVoje