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CPS Final

Authors and their ideas

Anderson Nations are an imagined political community Limited, sovereign Believes that rise of print and decline of religion played a role
Fukuyama "The Necessity of Politics" Political decay occurs when insts don't adjust to circumstances Inst. inertia reinforces the status quo
Krasner sovereignty is still kickin' internat'l insts are changing the role and scope of state sov
Hobsbawm Nation "any sufficiently large body whose members regard themselves as a nation" Rise of middle class and natl language prompts state formation
Tilly war makes state, state makes war! States: coercion-weilding organizations that are distinct from households and kinship groups and exrcise clear priority in some respects over all other organizations with substantial territories
Herbst "War and the State in Africa" War is missing ingredient for state formation in AFrica most gained independence w/o winning a war
Herbst and Mills "The Invisible State" DRC is not a legit state but IR comm still supports it
Rotberg states fail when they can't deliver positive social goods need for security and infrastructure to prevent state failure
Fukuyama "The Middle Class Revolution" Middle class status is better defined by education, occupation, and the ownership of assets, which are far more consequential in predicting political behavior Middle class is important in fermenting social change but needs to form coalitions to succeed
Stepan, Linz, and Yadav -state-nations vs nation state -state-nations have ethnic/cultural diversity within but still has nationalism among citizens -federal parliamentary systems; complementary identities; inst trust
Fearon and Laitin insurgency better predictor of civil war than ethnic diversity odds of civil war decrease as income increases large vs small dominance-- large can be worse in poorer countries
Gryzmala-Busse religion:“A public and collective belief system that structures the relationship of the individual to the divine and the supernatural” largest group ppl identify with; not refutable relig structure plays role in soc/pol structure
Huntington civilization is highest cultural grouping to which people claim identity human history defined by conflict on increasing scale; next step is btwn civilization
Rodrik -globalization has not undermined the importance of nat’l govts -govts need to step in to monitor prices, decide when to send troops -global governance is of limited use b/c we have no global standards for workers rights, etc
Malcolm EU mostly benefits richer countries nations still more concerned with own interests
Dixon monetary but not fiscal union need for "touch love and market discipline" to make it work
North Institutions are the devised constraints that structure political, economic and social interaction expansion of trade required institutions Eur innovations lowered transaction costs and increased success of their institutions
Hardin "Tragedy of the Commons" concern w/ overpop. a problem w/ "no technical solution" can't appeal to conscience so we need mutually agreed upon and enforced coercion
Singer no mo babiez
Wintrobe Dictator's dilemma the dictator and the subjects have a problem of credibly signaling trust in one another. Why is this a problem? Repression It arises when there are gains from exchange but when promises and obligations are not enforceable.
Linz and Stepan new spectrum of regimes:Democracy, Totalitarianism, Post-Totalitarianism, Sultanism,authoritarianism measured by: pluralism, ideology, leadership, mobilization
Levitsky and Way comp auth not always sign of dem transition have formal inst and facade of democracy but rules are often violated
Zakaria rise of Church started birth of human liberty liberty-freedom from arbitrary authority new class of yeomen capitalists were first group to limit pwr of kings in W Eur
De Toqueville -to address the political reality we observed we must educate democracy, develop knowledge of statecraft, and develop a new science of politics
Schmitter and Karl -conditions for democracy: policy controlled by elected officials,fair elections,universal suffrage and ability to run for office, freedom of expression, info, and assoc, elected officials exercise power w/o being overridden by unelected officials
Goldstone Arab spring was against sultanistic regimes •sultans are vulnerable b/c: must balance amassing personal wealth w/ rewarding the elites, huge economic inequality develops under their regimes, questions of succession as leader ages
King Plurality Systems (first past the post) Majority Electoral System -second-ballot system (run off votes) Proportional Representation Single Transferrable vote -most complex system
Soudriette and Ellis Classify electoral systems into four broad categories: Plurality/Majority, Proportional Representation, Mixed, Other Plurality/Majority: five types: First Past the Post, Two Round System, Alternative Vote, Block Vote, Party Block Vote
Duverger -simple-majority single ballot systems favors bipartism
Taagepera and Shugart -Electoral rules can make or break a party!! -easiest part of pol system to change with goals in mind -inertia, countries usually stay w/ system they had around time they achieved universal suffrage -precinct magnitude #of seats per district
Lijphart Plurality method of election have two party systems, one party governments, and execs that are dominant in relation to their legislatures PR: multiparty systems, coalition governments, and more equal executive legislative pwr relations
Norris “Majoritarian systems create strong govt able to implement decisive policies”
Cheibub compares pres to parl and says even though parl systems do better it's not something inherently wrong with presidentialist PR:fuses legislative and exec powers; easier to form coalitions, needs majority support in legislature to keep power
Linz Parliaments are better b/c w pres the exec and legis have competing claims to legitimacy, rigid terms,too much pwr compared to how much of the vote they got
Mainwaring and Shugart -disagree that presidentialism is oriented toward winner-takes-all results -should give pres limited legislative power, form disciplined parties
Lipset wealth is higher in democratic countries econ development can help explain democracy and class conflicts rapid industrialization --> unstable democracy modernization theory
Tufte improvements in unemployment and inflation in US coincide with presidential elections incumbents do this thru policy in order to influence voters (electoral economic cycle)
Smith division of labor increases efficiency and productivity self-interest in trade usually benefits society too "invisible hand"-- so state shouldn't regulate the economy
Acemoglu institutions are better predictor for development than geography studies former colonies to show how change in inst changes econ
Easterly econ growth is most important in reducing poverty government gets in the way of growth
Frank underdevelopment is a product of capitalist system metropolis suck all the resources out of rural areas countries grow most when least connected to world system ( dependency theory)
Acemoglu and Johnson improving health improves econ growth epidemiological transition over past 70 years however it does lower GDP/ capita and the K/L ratio
Collier and Gunning explanations for Africa's slow growth: -Domestic-Destiny -Domestic-Policy- this is probably it -External-Destiny -External-Policy
Hall and Soskice LMEs and CMEs capitalist economies aren't converging on a best model
Barro democracy often follows growth autocracy can promote growth if leaders don't hoard wealth if democracy progresses faster than growth, growth fails
Acemoglu, Johnson, Roberston, Yared no relationship btwn change in income and dem. explained by taking diff paths at "critical junctures"
Linz and Stepan consolidated democracy: political regime w/ democracy as a complex system of institutions, rule, incentives. "only game in town" also need: civil society, autonomous political society, rule of law, effective state bureaucracy, economic society
Lowery we can end poverty!
Krugman The Myth of Asia's Miracle idk If there is a secret to Asian growth, it is simply deferred gratification, the willingness to sacrifice current satisfaction for future gain
Arnold vietnam benefits from China's growth
Huntington "Political Order in Changing Societies" biggest diff between states is degree of governance political decay is result of rapid social change and slow political change econ development and pol stability are two separate goals
Gurr relative deprivation causes civil strife
Skocpol crisis of the state and class conflicts converge to produce social revolutions (institutionalization of new political order) state-centered approach
Walter Civil wars last longer because of bargaining failures including info asymmetry, inability to credibly commit, indivisible stakes
Humphreys and Weinstein ppl fight in civil wars because of econ dep, pol marginalization, selective material incentives, strong social structures, feel safer in the fighting group. also examine role of abduction in Sierra Leone
Kuran revolution= "mass supported seizure of political power that aims to transform the social order" hard to predict when revolutions occur because it is difficult to observe individual preference for change (falsify preferences)
Yashar postructural approach to identity (identity doesn’t always map onto politics, people have multiple identities that are activated by a historical shock) historical “shock” for indigenous organizing: decline of state corporatism + improved democracy
Sen "Women's Agency..." shift focus from promoting well-being to promoting agency (esp focus on empowering women economically and within the family)
Fukuyama "The End of History?" a total exhaustion of alts to western liberalism (meaning liberal economy + liberal democracy) a victory of ideas over fascism and communism only remaining contenders are religion + nationalism Zakaria would agree
Sen "Individual Freedom..." enhancing freedom (agency) is key to development freedom as processes and opportunity to participate in processes move from human capital to human capability
Florida growth and innovation concentrated in certain cities (spikes) that grow higher as the valleys grow deeper Indians and Chinese travel to Silicon Valley to innovate - certain rare ecosystems make ideas economically viable
Created by: clreardon1