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Law Enforcement

NHS 2014-2015 Law Enforcement I - Midterm

TermDefinition
Grand Jury A group of citizens who hear testimony in closed session and decides whether to issue a criminal indictment
Supreme Court This court's decisions cannot be overruled
Duty The responsibilities attached to a specific role
Noble Cause Corruption Involves officers employing unethical means to catch criminals because "it's the right thing to do"
Community-Oriented Policing Decentralized policing programs that focus on crime prevention, quality of life in the community, public order, and alternatives to arrest
Arrest Taking a person suspected of committing a crime into custody and curtailing the individual's freedom to leave, until the person can be brought before a judge to answer the charges against him or her.
Miranda Warning The warning given to suspects by law enforcement advising suspects of their legal rights to counsel, to refuse to answer questions, to avoid self-incrimination, and other privileges.
Terry v Ohio The landmark case which decided that Law Enforcement had the right to Stop & Frisk
Use of Force The degree of force to be used to a given situation
Criminal Procedure The process followed by police and courts in the apprehension, litigation, and punishment of defendants
An arrest occurs Whenever a law enforcement officer restricst a person's freedom to leave.
Politeria The word police is derived from the Greek word ______________.
Bill of Rights Amendments 1-10
The highest court in the United States Supreme Court
Duty The responsibilities attached to a specific role
Graft Exploitation of one's role by accepting bribes or protection money
Communication skills, Resourceful, Open Minded and Flexible Characteristics of an effective community-oriented policing officer
Arrest Warrant A court-ordered document giving law enforcement the authority to arrest someone on a specific charge.
Probable Cause Reasonable suspicion or belief that a crime has been committed and that a particular person committed that crime.
Mapp v Ohio This case established that evidence obtained illegally cannot be used against a defendant. The "Exclusionary Rule" or "Fruit of the Poisonous Tree."
Deadly Force The amount of force used by a law enforcement officer that would reasonably pose a high risk of death or serious injury to another person
9 How many justices make up the Supreme Court?
Discretion The option to choose between between two or more courses of behavior.
Corruption Exploiting of one's role by accepting bribes or protection money.
Reasonable suspicion Warranted suspicion that a person may be engaged in criminal conduct. Not quite to the level of probable cause.
Due Process The constitutional rights of citizens against government actions that threaten the denial of life, liberty, or property. In criminal cases, arrests and trials must meet certain mininum standards of fairness, and laws cannot violate constitutional rights.
Self-incrimination Giving evidence and answering question that would tend to subject one to criminal prosecution
Search The exploration or examination of an individual's home, vehicle, or person by a law enforcement officer to obtain items that may be used by the government in court proceedings as evidence
Due Process CLAUSE The provision in the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution stating that no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
Internal Affairs An internal discipline system where police investigate themselves
Discrimination Occurs when a discretionary decision-maker treats a group or individual differently from others for no justifiable reason.
SARA Scanning, Analysis, Response, Assessment
Reasonable Suspicion Warranted suspicion that a person may be engaged in criminal conduct. Not quite to the level of probable cause.
Right to Council The right to be represented by an attorney at critical stages of the Criminal Justice System.
Seizure The taking, by law enforcement officers, of potential evidence in a criminal case. It Also applies to the exercise of dominion over a person or thing because of a law violation (i.e. stopping, deterring, or arresting a person )
Fruit of the Poisoned Tree Doctrine The doctrine holding that if evidence is initially obtained in an illegal way, all subsequent evidence gathered from the unlawful manner is "poisoned," as well. If the tree is poisoned, so is the fruit coming from it.
Police Subculture An unofficial fraternity of police officers that promotes an "us versus them" mentality.
Problem-Oriented Policing Focuses on solving the underlying problems of delinquency and crime
Stop and Frisk A police practice, giving a law enforcement officer the ability to stop an individual in a public place, to ask questions, and to frisk that person for weapons
Exclusionary Rule A provision that excludes any illegally obtained evidence by the government from being admissible in court proceedings
Gratuities Items of value given because of role or position, rather than a person relationship.
Civilian Review An independent civilian agency that audits complaints and investigations against Police Officers
Created by: IAMGCS