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Psychology 1000

December exam review

Psychology The study of behaviour and mental processes (in humans and animals)
Methods of psychology descriptive and experimental
Descriptive methods systematic observation= Field (naturalistic) observation, surveys, and "clinical" methods [**cannot explain anything, only describe]
Clinical Methods Interviews & rating scales (past psychological state), Tests (present), and longitudinal case study (future)
Tests subjective and objective
Experimental drawbacks artificiality, interference, inappropriateness, and errors in interpretation
Experimental Method systematic intervention= location, variables, characteristics:control and replication, and drawbacks
Contaminating factors age, motivation, intellectual, education, sex
7 types of senses hearing, seeing, smelling (olfactory), taste (gustatory), skin, balance, kinaesthetic
Defining the term operationally define it in terms of the operations necessary to measure it
demand characteristics experimenters may, inadvertently communicate their hypothesis to the subject
expectation effects gave an example of how women who were and weren't given liquor and how the non-liquor drinkers got very drunk and the opposite didn't
placebo effect nothing other than the expectation that it will work does it actually
control group group with the least done to it
stimulant the "thing"
placebo doesn't have the "thing"
replication repeating a study in identical fashion
variables something that can vary, condition or factor that is set or manipulated, a factor or conditions that can change in value or degree (ex. age, height, weight, etc.)
independent variable changes are independent of what the subject does
dependent variable changes are dependent on changes in the independent variable (reaction of the participants, what is being studied)
perceptual organization we can distinguish ground from figures because they have a boundary to them, the ground is usually shapeless
gestalts the ability to unlearn and organize incoming sensations into patterns
principles of figure-ground principle of contour, principle of grouping, principle of closure, and principle of apparent movement
illusions can occur from conflicting information
Stage 1 sleep 25%
Stage 2 sleep 50% (know the least about)
stage 3 sleep 5% (deepest sleep)
stage 4 sleep 20% (deepest sleep) recuperative sleep and if awoken there will be a spastic movement, and confusion/disorientation
REM sleep "paradoxical sleep" b/c you seem to be awake physiologically, when behaviourally you seem more asleep physiologically, hard to awaken people in this stage, a new section of REM sleep every 90 mins, happens after non-rem sleep, loss of muscle tone
medulla oblongata the part of the brain responsible for the loss of muscle tone while sleeping
Why we dream 1)Lobbson- objectively are randomly made but as humans we cannot accept this so we create a meaning 2)dreams as thinking (connected to current concerns in ones life) 3)dreams as efforts to deal with problems 4)Freud- unconcious wishes
DAMIT dreams of absent minded transgression (ex. alcoholic who quit cold turkey may experience a dream about having a drink)
Hippocrates on dreams represent desires free from the interference of the reality of the waking state
REM rebound deprived of the opportunity to sleep so when they get the chance they do/catch up if given as much time as they want (up to 40% more time in REM sleep)
nightmare night devil in German, pressing devil in French, stage 1 awakening
night terror there is breathing difficulty, and is a stage 4 awakening
Methods of threshold determination psychophysical & signal detection
Psychophysical Method method of constant stimuli, method of limits, and method of average error
psychophysics the study of the sensory consequences of controlled physical stimulation
absolute threshold the smallest quantity of physical energy that can be reliably detected by an observer (not a constant value that changes from person-to-person and situation-to-situation)
difference threshold the smallest difference in stimulation that can be reliably detected by an observer when two stimuli are compared (JND-just noticeable difference)
Weber's law for every stimulus intensity, there is some constant % that must be added or subtracted for a difference in intensity to be detected
signal detection 1) capacity/efficiency 2) stimulus intensity 3) motivation 4) expectation
perceptual constancy the accurate perception of objects as stable or unchanged despite changes in the sensory patterns they produce (what makes our world perceptually stable)
learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour or change in behaviour potential
association we learn to connect memory things which occur together in our experience, such that if we think of/remember one thing, we tend to think of/remember the other
Classical conditioning BEOFRE:includes a unconditioned stimulus which causes an unconditioned response DURING:the unconditioned stimulus is paired with a conditioning response which causes the unconditioned response AFTER:the conditioned stimulus causes a conditioned response
classical conditioning can cause... phobias
stimulus generalization objects which are similar to the conditioned stimulus may cause the same reaction (conditioned response) as the conditioned stimulus (ex. baby Albert becoming scared of furry things not just rats)
higher-order conditioning present with the original stimulus and are nothing like the stimulus but an association is created (ex. Skinner: drinking wine to open envelopes -> then drinking wine and seeing husband)
extinction the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus (if experience is very traumatic extinction may never occur)
spontaneous recovery the reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
counter conditioning a series of small incremental steps where a positive stimulation is paired lightly with the feared and over time the feared becomes positive or associated with positive
Operant (instrumental) conditioning a response that is followed by satisfaction to the organism will be likely to recur; responses followed by neutral or unsatisfying consequences will be less likely to recur than classically cond. responses
operant responses are.. 1) complex 2) usually under the learners control 3) more useful than classical conditioning
Thorndike's law of affect If you do something and you like the result you'll do it again. If you do something and you don't like the result you probably won't do it again
punishment is intended to... decrease behaviour
positive reinforcement a reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the PRESENTATION of, or INCREASE in intensity of, a reinforcing stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur (
positive AND negative punishment both lead to.. a decreased probability of responding
negative reinforcement a reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the REMOVAL, DELAY, or DECREASE in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur
skinner box a manipulandom- something the animal can tap or push to receive the reinforcement, which also had an electric grid floor to shock for misbehaving
schedules of reinforcement can be.. continuous & partial (intermittent)
Partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedules are.. ratio & interval
2 kinds of ratios are.. fixed ratio and variable ratio
2 kinds of intervals are.. fixed interval and variable interval
fixed ratio occurs after a fixed number of behaviours (there is a post-reinforcement pause)
variable ratio occurs on average after "x" number of responses occur (there is no post-reinforcement pause)
reinforcement is and must.. the process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows & must occur in a timely fashion or association may not be made
2 types of amnesia (forgetting) antrograde & retrograde
antrograde can only remember AFTER a certain point in time (usually due to a physical condition ex. head injury or old age)
two types of retrograde forgetting.. psychogenic & repression
repression motivated or selected forgetting (Freud believed in this, an it is controversial)
memory trace decay some memories simply diaper over time if they are not used (cannot say this for all memories)
distortion sometimes what looks to be forgetting may be that it was learned incorrectly to begin with (faulty original learning)
Two types of transfers.. positive & negative
retroactive interference forgetting previously learned material because of recently learned material - remembering of A is interfered with by more retaining of B (learn A, learn B, try to remember A)
Proactive interference (negative transfer) forgetting recently learned material because of previously learned material - remembering of B is interfered with by older memory of A (learn A, learn B, try to remember B)
stimulus discrimination the tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to evoke the CR
positive & negative punishment both lead to.. an decreased probability of responding
amnesia the partial or complete loss of memory for important personal information
Created by: ahusse24