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Earth Science vocab

Syncline Downward fold of a rock.
Epicenter Is right above the focus most of the damage from the earthquake usually occurs there.
Vents Cracks in the earth's surface.
Volcano Are areas of earth's surface through which magma and volcanic gases pass.
Geology The study of orgin history, structure and process that shape earth.
Divergent Boundary The place where plates move apart from each other.
Transform Place where plates slide past each other.
Convergent Boundary Place where plates Collide.
Theory of Continental Drift The belief that continents moved to the position they are in the present.
Pangea Supercontinent; all continents joined as one.
Tectonic Plates Set of jigsaw-like pieces that slowly move on the Earth's crust.
Anticlines Upward fold of a rock.
Fault Block Crack in the crust.
Focus The point where an earthquake starts.
Seismic waves Waves that travel out from an earthquake.
Magma Molten Rock.
Magma Chamber Is a body of molten rock deep underground that feeds a volcano.
Pyroclastic flow Flows are produced when enormus amounts of hot ash, dust, and gases are ejected from a volcano.
Inner Core Is located at the center of the earth and is composed of nickel and iron.
Outer Core Only liquid layer between the Inter core and mantle.
Mantle The thickest layer made of hot rock.
Crust The thinnest layer that surrounds the earth that is hard and rigid.
Weathering The breaking down of the lithosphere by the wind, ice, plants, animals and chemical changes.
Principle of uniformity The process that have changed out world still changes today.
Mechanical Weathering The process of breaking down rocks to smaller pieces.
Chemical weathering The process that alters mineral composition.
Primary Wave Travels the fastest.
Secondary wave Slower than the primary wave.
Subsurface Below the surface of the earth.
Lava Magma that flows into the earth's surface.
Surface wave The only wave that doesn't start inside the earth.
Pyroclastic flow Flows are produced when enormous amounts of hot ash, dust, and gases are ejected from a volcano.
Viscosity (Viscous) Having a thick, sticky consistency between solid and liquid; having a high viscosity.
Crater Is a funnel-shaped hole around the central vent.
Caldera A large, semicircular depression that forms when the magma chamber below a volcano partially empties and causes the ground above to sink.
Rock Cycle The series of rock changes from one form to another.
Erosion The process by which wind, water, ice or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another.
Deposition The process in which material is laid down.
Igneous Rocks Rocks formed by cooling of lava and magma.
Sedimentary Rocks Rocks formed through deposition and sediment in layers.
Metamorphic rocks Rocks that was once formed and now has changed to another by heat and pressure.
Intrusive Rocks Rocks formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath the earth surface.
Extrusive Igneous Rocks Rocks that forms as a result of volcanic activity at or near the earth's surface.
Strata Layers of Rock (singular, stratum.
Stratsafaction The process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers.
Index Minerals Used to estimate the temperature, depth and pressure of which a rock undergoes metamorphism.
Foliated The texture of a metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands.
Non Foliated The texture of a metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands.
Created by: Zbrown807