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matter anything that has mass and takes up space
non-matter sound, light, and heat
property characteristic of a substance that can be observed
weight force of gravity acting on an object
density amount of mass per unit volume
intensive property do not depend on amount of substance being tested/observed
1.0 g/mL water's density
refraction bending of a light wave as it passes from one medium to another
chemical properties a property that can only be observed by changing the identity of the substance
flammability, ability to rust, reactivity with vinegar examples of chemical properties
optical properties color and refractive index
non-optical properties surface wear, striations from manufacturing, thickness, surface film or dirt, hardness, density
resistant to all but fluorine and very strong bases chemical properties of glass
glass fusion of sand, soda, and lime that produces a transparent solid when cooled
physical property can be observed without changing a substance's identity
element substance that only has one type of matter in it
element is a building block of matter how are matter and element related?
atom smallest particle of an element that can exist and still retain its identity
compound two or more elements joined chemically
solid, liquid, gas three states of matter
amount of space between particles (freezing, melting, and boiling points) what chemical property of a substance determines its state?
physical because the chemical compositions stay the same are changes of state physical or chemical changes?
wavelength length from crest to crest or trough to trough
different colors come from different wavelengths of light how is color related to the behavior of light?
wavelength or frequency what property distinguished different types of electromagnetic radiation from one another?
temperature measure of heat intensity
weigh it how is the mass of an object determined?
hardness, color, density examples of intensive property
borosilicate glass 5% borax is added to resist breaking when heated or cooled
colored glass metal oxides or colloidal iron and sulfur are added to change its color
lead glass lead increases refractive index and density
flat glass made by a "float glass process"; molten glass is floated on a pool of tin while cooling (commonly found in doors and windows)
laminated glass two sheets of glass with plastic between them (used in windshields)
tempered safety glass designed to break into tiny pieces (used in car side window)
away glass acts initially as an elastic surface and bends in which direction when force is applied
radial cracks form first and are propagated in short segments on the side opposite the force
concentric cracks come from continued pressure on the same side as the force applied
refractive index ratio of velocity of light in a vacuum to velocity of light in a given substance
sand main ingredient in ordinary glass
soda lime glass what kind of glass is used most commonly in bottles and windows?
match it with a bigger piece of the glass like a jigsaw puzzle what is the only way to individualize glass fragments found at a crime scene to a single source?
density and refractive index what physical properties are used most often to characterize glass particles?
flotation method for measuring density
immersion method how can a forensic scientist determine the refractive indices of suspect glass fragments?
Liter basic unit
radial cracks then concentric cracks when an object strikes a piece of glass, how does it fracture?
becke lines edges of lines
soil any disintegrated surface material, natural and/or artificial, that lies on or near the earth's surface
color and texture visual comparison of identification technique
mineral naturally occurring crystalline solid
rock combination of minerals
igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary types of rock
density-gradient tube way to analyze soil
density-gradient tube a glass tube filled from bottom to top with liquids of successively lighter densities
Created by: pace_sauce